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Disease Alzheimers Animal Communication Animal Migration Animal ... Search Article Summaries Enter search words separated by commas Go Links by Keyword --------------------------- ADHD Aggression ALS-Lou Gehrig's Disease Alzheimers Animal Communication Animal Migration Animal Rights Anorexia & Bulimia Apoptosis Attention Autism Biological Rhythms Biomechanics Brain imaging Brain Injury/Concussion Cerebral Cortex Chemical Senses Smell & Taste Consciousness Depression Development of the Brain Drug Abuse Dyslexia Emotions Epigenetics Epilepsy Evolution Genes & Behavior Glia Hearing Hormones & Behavior Huntingtons Intelligence Language Laterality Learning & Memory Miscellaneous Movement Disorders Multiple Sclerosis Muscles Narcolepsy Neurogenesis Neuroimmunology Neurotoxins Newsletter Obesity OCD - Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Pain & Touch Parkinsons Prions Regeneration Robotics Schizophrenia Sexual Behavior Sleep Stem Cells Stress Stroke Tourettes Trophic Factors Vision. Links By Chapter:. An Introduction to B...
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Disease Alzheimers Animal Communication Animal Migration Animal ... Search Article Summaries Enter search words separated by commas Go Links by Keyword --------------------------- ADHD Aggression ALS-Lou Gehrig's Disease Alzheimers Animal Communication Animal Migration Animal Rights Anorexia & Bulimia Apoptosis Attention Autism Biological Rhythms Biomechanics Brain imaging Brain Injury/Concussion Cerebral Cortex Chemical Senses Smell & Taste Consciousness Depression Development of the Brain Drug Abuse Dyslexia Emotions Epigenetics Epilepsy Evolution Genes & Behavior Glia Hearing Hormones & Behavior Huntingtons Intelligence Language Laterality Learning & Memory Miscellaneous Movement Disorders Multiple Sclerosis Muscles Narcolepsy Neurogenesis Neuroimmunology Neurotoxins Newsletter Obesity OCD - Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Pain & Touch Parkinsons Prions Regeneration Robotics Schizophrenia Sexual Behavior Sleep Stem Cells Stress Stroke Tourettes Trophic Factors Vision. Hormones and the Brain. Evolution of th...
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Disease Alzheimers Animal Communication Animal Migration Animal ... Musicians are also better at identifying pitch and speech sounds – brain imaging studies suggest that this is because their brains respond more quickly and strongly to sound. Might this mean that the two halves of a musician’s brain are better at communicating with each other compared with non-musicians. Keyword: Hearing ; Laterality Link ID: 21465 - Posted: 10.01.2015. Everywhere you go there is vibration and it tells you something." © 2015 NPR Keyword: Hearing ; Evolution Link ID: 21394 - Posted: 09.10.2015. "And if you don't know their voices, there's no way you could come to a place like this and come up with a good list of canopy species." © 2015 NPR Keyword: Animal Communication ; Language Link ID: 21380 - Posted: 09.03.2015. Keyword: Sexual Behavior ; Animal Communication Link ID: 21357 - Posted: 08.29.2015. "They have the call rate and they have the attractiveness of the call." © 2015 NPR Keyword: Sexual Behavior ; Animal Communicati...
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have studied how animals navigate around the globe and have… ... response to animal affective vocalizations PubMed Central ... plants and plant- animal interactions, have sparked debate over... animal migration.html
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Fish. Prehistoric Animals. The red crab is a Christmas Island, ... doors during their migration to the sea. The red crab is a Christmas ... a legendary mass migration to their seaside breeding grounds,...
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(1/1226) How the clear-sky angle of polarization pattern continues underneath clouds: full-sky measurements and implications for animal orientation.

One of the biologically most important parameters of the cloudy sky is the proportion P of the celestial polarization pattern available for use in animal navigation. We evaluated this parameter by measuring the polarization patterns of clear and cloudy skies using 180 degrees (full-sky) imaging polarimetry in the red (650 nm), green (550 nm) and blue (450 nm) ranges of the spectrum under clear and partly cloudy conditions. The resulting data were compared with the corresponding celestial polarization patterns calculated using the single-scattering Rayleigh model. We show convincingly that the pattern of the angle of polarization (e-vectors) in a clear sky continues underneath clouds if regions of the clouds and parts of the airspace between the clouds and the earth surface (being shady at the position of the observer) are directly lit by the sun. The scattering and polarization of direct sunlight on the cloud particles and in the air columns underneath the clouds result in the same e-vector pattern as that present in clear sky. This phenomenon can be exploited for animal navigation if the degree of polarization is higher than the perceptual threshold of the visual system, because the angle rather than the degree of polarization is the most important optical cue used in the polarization compass. Hence, the clouds reduce the extent of sky polarization pattern that is useful for animal orientation much less than has hitherto been assumed. We further demonstrate quantitatively that the shorter the wavelength, the greater the proportion of celestial polarization that can be used by animals under cloudy-sky conditions. As has already been suggested by others, this phenomenon may solve the ultraviolet paradox of polarization vision in insects such as hymenopterans and dipterans. The present study extends previous findings by using the technique of 180 degrees imaging polarimetry to measure and analyse celestial polarization patterns.  (+info)

(2/1226) Speeds and wingbeat frequencies of migrating birds compared with calculated benchmarks.

Sixteen species of birds passing Falsterbo in southwest Sweden during the autumn migration season were observed using short-range optical methods. Air speeds and wingbeat frequencies were measured, reduced to sea level, and compared with benchmark values computed by Flight.bas, a published flight performance program based on flight mechanics. The benchmark for air speed was the calculated sea-level value of the minimum power speed (V(mp)). The mean speeds of three raptor species that flew by flap-gliding were below V(mp), apparently because the flap-glide cycle involved slowing down below V(mp) when gliding and accelerating back up to V(mp) when flapping. The mean speeds of 11 species that flew by continuous flapping were between 0.82V(mp) and 1.27V(mp). Two passerine species that flew by bounding had mean speeds of 1.70V(mp) and 1.96V(mp), but these high mean speeds reflected their ability to fly faster against head winds. These results do not support predictions from optimal migration theory, which suggest that migrating birds 'should' fly faster, relative to V(mp). However, observations were restricted for technical reasons to birds flying below 200 m and may not represent birds that were seriously committed to long-distance migration. The benchmark wingbeat frequency (f(ref)) was derived from dimensional reasoning, not from statistical analysis of observations. Observed wingbeat frequencies ranged from 0.81f(ref) to 1.05f(ref), except in the two bounding species, whose wingbeat frequencies appeared anomalously high. However, the mechanics of bounding with a power fraction q imply that gravity during the flapping phase is increased by a factor 1/q, and when the value of gravity was so adjusted in the expression for f(ref), the wingbeat frequencies of the two bounding species were predicted correctly as a function of the power fraction. In small birds with more muscle power than is required to fly at speeds near V(mp), bounding is an effective method of adjusting the specific work in the muscle fibres, allowing conversion efficiency to be maximised over a wide range of speeds.  (+info)

(3/1226) Light-dependent magnetoreception in birds: the behaviour of European robins, Erithacus rubecula, under monochromatic light of various wavelengths and intensities.

To investigate how magnetoreception is affected by the wavelength and intensity of light, we tested European robins, Erithacus rubecula, under monochromatic lights of various wavelengths at two intensities using oriented behaviour as an indicator of whether the birds could derive directional information from the geomagnetic field. At a quantal flux of 7 x 10(15) quanta s(-1) m(-2), the birds were well oriented in their migratory direction east of North under 424 nm blue, 510 nm turquoise and 565 nm green light, whereas they were disoriented under 590 nm yellow light. Increasing the intensity of light at the same wavelengths more than sixfold to 43 x 10(15) quanta s(-1) m(-2) resulted in a change in behaviour: under bright blue and green light, the birds now showed a preference for the East-West axis, with the majority of headings at the western end; under bright turquoise light, they oriented unimodally towards a direction slightly west of North. Under bright yellow light, the birds continued to be disoriented. These findings suggest a rather complex relationship between the receptors involved in magnetoreception. Magnetoreception appears to follow rules that are different from those of vision, suggesting that light-dependent magnetoreception may involve receptors and neuronal pathways of its own.  (+info)

(4/1226) Effects of duration and time of food availability on photoperiodic responses in the migratory male blackheaded bunting (Emberiza melanocephala).

The effects of the duration and time of food availability on stimulation of the photoperiodic responses (fattening and gain in body mass, and growth and development of testes) were investigated in the migratory blackheaded bunting (Emberiza melanocephala). Two experiments were performed. Experiment I examined the effects of a reduction in the duration of food supply in buntings that were subjected to long day lengths (16h:8h L:D) and received food ad libitum (group I) or for restricted durations, coinciding with the end of the lights-on period, of 8h (group II) and 4h (group III). Buntings of group I gained in body mass, whereas there was a mixed response in group II (half the birds gained and half lost body mass), and all birds of group III lost body mass. There was no effect on testis growth in groups I and II, but testes grew more slowly in group III. Experiment 2 investigated the effects of both the duration and the time of food availability. Of five groups of birds, group I was exposed to an 8h:16h L:D photoperiod, and groups II-V were exposed to 16h:8h L:D. Whereas birds of groups I and II received food ad libitum, those of groups III-V were fed only for 5 h, at zt 0-5 (group III), zt 5.5-10.5 (group IV) or zt 11-16 (group V), where zt = zeitgeber time and zt 0 refers to the beginning of the lights-on period. Apart from duration, the timing of food availability also had an effect on photoperiodic stimulation under the 16h:8h L:D photoperiod. Birds that were fed ad libitum fattened and gained in body mass, whereas among restricted feeding groups, only birds in the group fed during the first 5 h (zt 0-5, group III) showed a significant increase in body mass (albeit considerably lower than in the ad libitum group). Birds fed during the middle 5h (zt 5.5-10.5, group IV) showed an intermediate response, and those fed during the last 5h (zt 11-16, group V) lost body mass. Testicular growth was suppressed in birds that were fed for 5 h in the evening, but not in those fed for the same period in the morning or in the middle of the long day. Taken together, these results show that the duration of food supply and/or the time of day at which food is available affect photoperiodic stimulation of fattening and gain in body mass as well as the growth and development of gonads in the blackheaded bunting.  (+info)

(5/1226) Complex bird clocks.

The circadian pacemaking system of birds comprises three major components: (i) the pineal gland, which rhythmically synthesizes and secretes melatonin; (ii) a hypothalamic region, possibly equivalent to the mammalian suprachiasmatic nuclei; and (iii) the retinae of the eyes. These components jointly interact, stabilize and amplify each other to produce a highly self-sustained circadian output. Their relative contribution to overt rhythmicity appears to differ between species and the system may change its properties even within an individual depending, for example, on its state in the annual cycle or its photic environment. Changes in pacemaker properties are partly mediated by changes in certain features of the pineal melatonin rhythm. It is proposed that this variability is functionally important, for instance, for enabling high-Arctic birds to retain synchronized circadian rhythms during the low-amplitude zeitgeber conditions in midsummer or for allowing birds to adjust quickly their circadian system to changing environmental conditions during migratory seasons. The pineal melatonin rhythm, apart from being involved in generating the avian pacemaking oscillation, is also capable of retaining day length information after isolation from the animal. Hence, it appears to participate in photoperiodic after-effects. Our results suggest that complex circadian clocks have evolved to help birds cope with complex environments.  (+info)

(6/1226) Juvenile hormone regulation of longevity in the migratory monarch butterfly.

Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) of eastern North America are well known for their long-range migration to overwintering roosts in south-central Mexico. An essential feature of this migration involves the exceptional longevity of the migrant adults; individuals persist from August/September to March while their summer counterparts are likely to live less than two months as adults. Migrant adults persist during a state of reproductive diapause in which both male and female reproductive development is arrested as a consequence of suppressed synthesis of juvenile hormone. Here, we describe survival in monarch butterflies as a function of the migrant syndrome. We show that migrant adults are longer lived than summer adults when each are maintained under standard laboratory conditions, that the longevity of migrant adults is curtailed by treatment with juvenile hormone and that the longevity of summer adults is increased by 100% when juvenile hormone synthesis is prevented by surgical removal of its source, the corpora allatum. Thus, monarch butterfly persistence through a long winter season is ensured in part by reduced ageing that is under endocrine regulation, as well as by the unique environmental properties of their winter roost sites. Phenotypic plasticity for ageing is an integral component of the monarch butterflies' migration-diapause syndrome.  (+info)

(7/1226) Deriving dispersal distances from genetic data.

Dispersal is one of the most important factors determining the genetic structure of a population, but good data on dispersal distances are rare because it is difficult to observe a large sample of dispersal events. However, genetic data contain unbiased information about the average dispersal distances in species with a strong sex bias in their dispersal rates. By plotting the genetic similarity between members of the philopatric sex against some measure of the distance between them, the resulting regression line can be used for estimating how far dispersing individuals of the opposite sex have moved before settling. Dispersers showing low genetic similarity to members of the opposite sex will on average have originated from further away. Applying this method to a microsatellite dataset from lions (Panthera leo) shows that their average dispersal distance is 1.3 home ranges with a 95% confidence interval of 0.4-3.0 home ranges. These results are consistent with direct observations of dispersal from our study population and others. In this case, direct observations of dispersal distance were not detectably biased by a failure to detect long-range dispersal, which is thought to be a common problem in the estimation of dispersal distance.  (+info)

(8/1226) Unexpected coherence and conservation.

The effects of migration in a network of patch populations, or metapopulation, are extremely important for predicting the possibility of extinctions both at a local and a global scale. Migration between patches synchronizes local populations and bestows upon them identical dynamics (coherent or synchronous oscillations), a feature that is understood to enhance the risk of global extinctions. This is one of the central theoretical arguments in the literature associated with conservation ecology. Here, rather than restricting ourselves to the study of coherent oscillations, we examine other types of synchronization phenomena that we consider to be equally important. Intermittent and out-of-phase synchronization are but two examples that force us to reinterpret some classical results of the metapopulation theory. In addition, we discuss how asynchronous processes (for example, random timing of dispersal) can paradoxically generate metapopulation synchronization, another non-intuitive result that cannot easily be explained by the standard theory.  (+info)

How important is animal life to you?

Nice Guy Wrote in a previous question: “Matt has basically stated that animals are equally important as humans. I'm sorry, but no animals life has as much importance or relevance as that of a human. For one to think that an animals life is just as important as his own is absurd. Can anyone possibly believe that the life of a pig, cow, or chicken can even compare to the life of a human being?” 
How do you feel about this? Does an animal's interest in living have any weight in our deciding how we treat said animal? How is an animal's interest in continued existence qualitatively any different than our own?
I'm not trying to give Nice Guy a hard time, I just think this is something that should be discussed, and his answer provides a good starting point.
We have some real deep thinkers responding so far.
Beebs' Answer sort of misses the point of this question. But to the point it does adress I could not agree more.
What I would like people to ponder is that animals have the same interest in their continued existence that you do yours. We have no morally relevant reason to respect a human's interest in continued life wile denying to afford animals the same consideration.
@ Niceguy, I wrote you a responce but it is too long to fit here. You can find it here:

Take care

@ Nice guy: I’m fairly disappointed in your last post. If you want to debate these issues then lets go. If not, then don’t pretend to engage in one and then back out mid discussion. You say “I believe my goal of simply reducing animal suffering to a minimum, is simply more realistic than that of abolishing it.” And I give you plenty of reasons (and there are plenty more) as to why that will never happen, which you make no attempt to address. You also say, “And though veganism can perhaps make a very small difference, I don't think it can, will, or ever has lead to any significant noticeable change.” I find this a very curious statement to make seeing as the term “Vegan” has only been around for about seventy years, and the theory of abolition has only been with us for thirty years.  Animal welfare on the other hand has been around for at least two hundred years, or if you consider India then around 2000 would be more accurate...
I fail to see your historical basis for making the claim that Veganism and abolition cannot create change, it has not had the chance to. Finally, a Vegan diet (or very near Vegan diet) can work for everyone. Read the China Study.  Also who are these “credible sources” that claim to be against a Vegan diet? Name names, I’m sure it would be interesting to see just how credible they  really are.
First, in response to your comments regarding the health of Vegans, I used “very near vegan diet” in parentheses after the words “Vegan diet” The near Vegan diet was referring to Dr. Dean Ornish’s early work in reversing heart disease. The “Vegan diet” which appeared out of parentheses referenced all other works by prominent scientists such as, Dr. T Colin Campbell, and Dr. Neal Barnard. Even the American Dietetic Association agrees that a Vegan diet is completely healthy by saying, “Well-planned vegan and other types of vegetarian diets are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including during pregnancy, lactation, infancy,
childhood and adolescence.”  
Second, with regard to your “intuition” about the animal rights movement, I guess we are just expected to take your opinion because you do not “foresee” a radical change in people’s diet? I think you were right, we are done here in regards to Animal Rights Vs. Animal Welfare.
.  You obviously are ignorant to even the most basic augments from each side, let alone the state of the movement and the struggle that is taking place for the grass-roots sections of the movement to beat back the corporate welfare groups that have done nothing but retard growth. In sum, your information about the healthfulness of Veganism is outdated at best, misinformed at worst, and your “intuition” about the possibilities and direction of the Animal Rights movement is just plain wrong.

I recently saw pictures of a Hurricane Katrina animal rescue.  I saw houses that were destroyed, and next to the house, would be a dog, tied to a steak.... It made me SICK.  Thinking of it now brings up so much anger in me.   What kind of depraved person would do that.  It was not as though there were seconds left, and they were going to be beamed out by Scottie in immediately.  There was a long, slow evacuation process, and they left those animals to slowly die.

If your house is burning down, you try to save your animals.  I will say though, that you save your children first.  But you bring an animal into your house and under your protection, you better care for it.  

I once had to do a report on the Psychology of Slavery for an African American Lit class.  One thing I noticed through my reading was that slaves verbally lost their human status.  They were often called animals.  I decided to do an extensive survey about this, but the only group we verbally do such a thing to today is actual animals.  We call one “pet” so we know to love them.  The other we call “animal” so we can distinguish not to care about them and believe we have a right to torture and kill them.  After the animal is killed, we call it “meat” so we never have to make any mental correlation.

My search was to find where we draw the line as we have done this to groups of people over and over again throughout history.  I am just saying the same mental process people used to go through the African American Holocaust is the same mental process we use to make animal slaughtering ok today.  It is something we click on and off, and the words we use to describe a being have a lot do to with it.

I had many categories in my survey, which I gave to the students in all my classes.
One section was “Animals.”  I had questions such as:
“Would you eat a cow?”, “IF you were starving, would you kill a cow to eat?”
… eat a dog, starving, kill a dog, kill your OWN dog
I even went on to compare animals to people.

I found that many people, in a hypothetical world, would kill a human stranger before killing their own dog... and yet, would eat a dog if they needed food.  Familiarity and how much we are willing to know about an animal has a great deal to do with things.  

Another tool we use is how to condone such behavior is understanding.  Understanding does not mean language, but culture.  If we had not yet discovered the other hemisphere (I’m in the U.S.) and we set on a voyage to France.  We would not be able to understand the language, but the culture would be similar enough to our own that we would consider them *like us* aka, civilized society.

If we went to a place where people lived of the land, half naked or naked, in small tribes (and we had not been exposed to this before) we would label them as *not like us,* uncivilized and animal like.  This is historically accurate, so you know it is true.

We grow up with dogs.  We can tell they understand us; culturally, we have come to understand when they are happy and sad; we have come to know they feel pain, and we feel for that pain.  We know no such things of cows.  

If human culture had made different choices in history and randomly decided to have cows or pigs living in their homes, and decided to eat dogs/wolves, then we would be giving our pet pigs presents on Christmas and have cats and dogs in factory farming without every questioning.  

I am sorry I got so very very off track, I have just put a lot of thought into the value we place on life and its relationship to language and culture.  

To answer your question, I believe life is important, and no living creature deserves to suffer needlessly.  Yes, an antelope is going to suffer when a lioness or what have you kills it, but that death needed to happen.  However, as a human, I suppose I do consider human life more important.  If I was in a hypothetical situation where someone was going to kill me or kill my cat, I would choose my cat (sorry Simone!) But if it was kill me or kill my nephew, I would choose me.  The optimal situation is of course that I save me, my cat and my nephew, but that’s not what hypotheticals are all about.

If the situation was torture however, I would have a difficult time condoning the torture of another at all.

What all this means on the grand scheme of things?  I have no friggen clue.  You wanted discussion, so I rambled my behind off like I have never rambled my behind off before.  
Just email me if you want me to take this long rant off your question.


EDIT: Yes, I believe animals have the same interests in continuing to exist that I do.  I believe they don't want to be tortured, and they don't want to die. (Who would?)  I believe they protect their young; I believe they mourn; I believe they fear; I believe they suffer, and I believe they want.

What is the name for a fear of stuffed animals and mounted animal heads?

I have a fear of stuffed animal and animal heads. I can't walk past them when I see them in museums or houses. I thought that the correct name for this fear was Doraphobia, but then I read somewhere that that's fear of fur. That's not right, because Im not scared of the fur itself. Anyone got any other ideas?
Deborah... Thanks anyway! I think I may have a phobia of taxidermy.

Animals- Zoophobia.
Animals, skins of or fur- Doraphobia.
Animals, wild- Agrizoophobia.
I don't see any thing on taxidermy.
Maybe it's a form of necrophobia-death or dead things.

What part of an animal are we actually eating?

I know that there are certain parts of the animal that we eat beside the actually body part such, as the leg or ribs. But beneath the skin, and above the bone, what is it really?

meat is muscle from many different parts of the animal.  You can see where different cuts of meat come from on charts in the butcher shops.

What can I do to help make progress to stop all kinds of animal cruelty around the world?

I know that it is impossible to stop all animal cruelty over night.  I also know that it is impossible for people to stop eating meat, buying leather/fur over night.  But I am a vegetarian and this issue really effects me.  I've heard some really horrible horrible stories about the meat industry.  I've heard stories of cows being put into boiling water in order to "soften" their skin to make good leather.

I feel really sad for animals that are put through these horrible pain and suffering.  I know that it is a long battle uphill for vegetarians and vegans.  But my question is, how can I get involved to bring an end to the cruelty that occurs?

you could start by not being cruel to animals, I guess, but do you work in a zoo?  you may have to change jobs if that's the case.

Is it ethical to dissect an animal if it helps save others ?

I'm vegan,and obviously love animals.
I plan to have a career helping them as a vet tech,or marine biologist.
Therefore I need to learn to actually perform surgery in order to get to that point,and the only method to get to that is practicing it.
I am asking,Is dissecting an animal to save a few others lives legitimate?

I oppose dissecting animals who were bred for that sole purpose,I'd much rather have to dissect an animal who died of natural causes.

It is not a question of ethics, it is a question of necessity. If it needs to be done, it will be done, if not by you then by someone else. If you feel you should not do it, then don't. A marine biologist does not perform surgery by the way. But you may have to capture, kill and chemically preserve some animals in order to study them. 

Soldiers have always been asked this very same question.

Is not eating meat really saving animals' lives? How is it going to stop others from eating the same animal?

I'm a vegetarian because the taste of meat is disgusting. I really don't care about animals. But seriously, the animal is already dead, so how vegetarians save it's life? Do they break in to the pasture and steal animals away at night?

You don't save ANY animals being a vegetarian. Every single animal that is born to become food will become food. Just because you decide to become a vegetarian doesn't mean the vegetarian fairy will fly down and pick up a farm animal and bring it to a happy field where it can live out the rest of its life.

Maybe by being a vegetarian they wont breed as many animals. But you still can't save something that never existed. Like I said before, All animals that are breed for food will become food.

What state has the largest animal agriculture?

I have to write an essay about the negative effects of animal agriculture but I have to be specific (geographically).
What state has the largest animal agriculture in the US?

More details about the topic would be great too!
Thank you.
Science & Mathematics > Agriculture

It depends on the type of animal.

According to the Cattle Network, the state with the most cattle ranches is Texas, which has over twice as many head of cattle as number 2- Kansas.

The states which kill the most pigs are Iowa and North Carolina.
North Carolina, Minnesota and California kill the most turkeys.
Alabama, Arkansas and Georgia kill the most chickens.

Is there a website that evaluates or tracks humane animal treatment for animals used for food?

My husband and I enjoy our meat but i am really disturbed at some of the horror stories I have heard or seen about animals being treated terribly if they are going to be used for food. I am backing cage free eggs 100% to make sure that they are not being mistreated. Now I am planning to get a turkey for Thanksgiving and I wanted to find out about the companies/farms that process the animal to make sure I am not supporting harm towards animals.

So basically I am wondering if there is a website that evaluates or digs into companies so I know which products to support or not support?

I appreciate any answers you may have

By killing something you are technically harming it. There is a lot of inaccurate information written on here with regards to farming of animals. Most farmers treat their animals well. By not treating them well, they lessen the price of the end product. That would be bad business. Milking cows are very content in their environment. They are well looked after. If you maltreat a cow she will stop milking due to stress.
I'm not saying there is no cruelty in this world. Heavens above, many humans maltreat other humans, but don't believe everything you read or hear.
I doubt you'll find a true and independent website with regards to your question. 
I was an agricultural student years ago