No data available that match "Animal Structures"

*  Changes in Bone Structure and Mass With Advancing Age in the Male C57BL/6J...
... μCT is a valid modality for assessing trabecular structure in animal models and human specimens.(45-47) In images in which the ... Changes in Bone Structure and Mass With Advancing Age in the Male C57BL/6J Mouse†. Authors. *. Bernard P. Halloran Ph.D.,. ... Majumdar S, Genant HK, Grampp S, Newitt DC, Truong VH, Lin JC, Mathur A 1997 Correlation of trabecular bone structure with age ... Animals. Forty-eight, 4-week-old male C57BL/6J mice (mean life span, ∼27 months) were obtained from The ...
*  Laurella, 2012 Adaptations PHYSICAL BEHAVIORAL are body structures that allow...
1 Laurella, 2012 Adaptations PHYSICAL BEHAVIORAL are body structures that allow an animal to find and consume food, defend ... A. Weinberg toad Chapter 7. © A. Weinberg Course of Study: Describe behaviors and body structures that help animals survive in ... Laurella, 2012 Adaptations PHYSICAL BEHAVIORAL are body structures that allow an animal to find and consume food, defend itself ... Download ppt "Laurella, 2012 Adaptations PHYSICAL BEHAVIORAL are body structures that allow an animal to find and ...
*  Materials Science News Articles: Chemistry
In Bird Feathers, Scientists Find Hints About Color of Extinct Animals *Researchers Describe Key Protein Structure and a Drug ... Microscopic Animals Inspire Innovative Glass Research. for stabilizing proteins in bacteria or cells for long periods of time ... Glass Paint Could Keep Metal Roofs and Other Structures Cool Even on Sunny Days (Video) keeping them cool and durable The ... Geochemistry analysis conducted by the U S Naval Research Laboratory of fossil sediment injection structures off the New
*  Town of LeRay, NY MED Mixed Economic Development District
The ratio of the aggregate gross floor area for all structures divided by the total lot area shall not exceed 0.6 for any ... Ch 60 Animals * Ch 69 Buildings, Unsafe * Ch 86 Fire Prevention and Building Construction ... Structures and uses shall conform to the Rules and Regulations for Protection from Contamination for Public Water Supplies ... In no event shall fixtures be mounted at a height greater than 150% of the height of the principal structure. ...
*  Wiley Online Library: Search Results Page
The structure of an aphid-parasitoid community. Journal of Animal Ecology. Volume 68, Issue 2, March 1999, Pages: 346-370, C. B ... Journal of Animal Ecology. Volume 69, Issue 5, September 2000, Pages: 771-784, Hussein Sadeghi and Francis Gilbert ... Role of ants in structuring the aphid community on apple. Ecological Entomology. Volume 35, Issue 2, April 2010, Pages: 206-215 ...
*  John K Stuff: Clampett Bad Mice Walk-We The Animals, Squeak
JEEZE!!! I totally remember that cartoon from when I was a kid! It's FANTASTIC! The mice kidnap the baby kitty, and it's all about the mommy cat trying to get her kitty back. It is incredibly emotional, but very funny at the same time. You feel genuine sympathy for her when her kid is kidnapped. ...
*  Town of LeRay, NY MU Mixed-Use District
Accessory structure (except sheds for single-family uses). Animal hospital or veterinary clinic ... The ratio of the aggregate gross floor area for all structures divided by the total lot area shall not exceed 0.35. ... Treated lumber (permitted only on outdoor structures for residential uses and signage); ...
*  Oxford Silk Group : Publications
2009 Fu, C., Shao, Z. & Vollrath, F. - Animal silks: their structures, properties and artificial production. Chemical ... 2009 Vollrath, F., Porter, D. & Dicko, C. - The structure of silk. pp146-198 in Handbook of Textile Fibre Structure Vol.2 Eds S ... Understanding the Mechanical Properties of Antheraea Pernyi Silk-From Primary Structure to Condensed Structure of the Protein. ... Proteins: Structure, Function, and Bioinformatics, 68 (1): 223-231 access. 2007 Porter, D. & Vollrath, F. - Nanoscale ...
*  Biology-Online • View topic - Primary, Secondard & Teriary Structure of Proteins
What are humans if they don't learn at University? Animals, yes.' ^^One of my ex-girlfriends said that. I stress the ex part. ... secondary and tertiary structures. I have some understanding of how the structures are formed, but what do they get used for? I ... The tertiary structure is as you say; the 'shape' of the protein. And yes this is what gives certain proteins their functions ( ... The primary structure is simply the sequence of amino acids as determined by the process of translation in protein

No data available that match "Animal Structures"

(1/578) IA in Kenyon cells of the mushroom body of honeybees resembles shaker currents: kinetics, modulation by K+, and simulation.

Cultured Kenyon cells from the mushroom body of the honeybee, Apis mellifera, show a voltage-gated, fast transient K+ current that is sensitive to 4-aminopyridine, an A current. The kinetic properties of this A current and its modulation by extracellular K+ ions were investigated in vitro with the whole cell patch-clamp technique. The A current was isolated from other voltage-gated currents either pharmacologically or with suitable voltage-clamp protocols. Hodgkin- and Huxley-style mathematical equations were used for the description of this current and for the simulation of action potentials in a Kenyon cell model. Activation and inactivation of the A current are fast and voltage dependent with time constants of 0.4 +/- 0.1 ms (means +/- SE) at +45 mV and 3.0 +/- 1.6 ms at +45 mV, respectively. The pronounced voltage dependence of the inactivation kinetics indicates that at least a part of this current of the honeybee Kenyon cells is a shaker-like current. Deactivation and recovery from inactivation also show voltage dependency. The time constant of deactivation has a value of 0.4 +/- 0.1 ms at -75 mV. Recovery from inactivation needs a double-exponential function to be fitted adequately; the resulting time constants are 18 +/- 3.1 ms for the fast and 745 +/- 107 ms for the slow process at -75 mV. Half-maximal activation of the A current occurs at -0.7 +/- 2.9 mV, and half-maximal inactivation occurs at -54.7 +/- 2.4 mV. An increase in the extracellular K+ concentration increases the conductance and accelerates the recovery from inactivation of the A current, affecting the slow but not the fast time constant. With respect to these modulations the current under investigation resembles some of the shaker-like currents. The data of the A current were incorporated into a reduced computational model of the voltage-gated currents of Kenyon cells. In addition, the model contained a delayed rectifier K+ current, a Na+ current, and a leakage current. The model is able to generate an action potential on current injection. The model predicts that the A current causes repolarization of the action potential but not a delay in the initiation of the action potential. It further predicts that the activation of the delayed rectifier K+ current is too slow to contribute markedly to repolarization during a single action potential. Because of its fast activation, the A current reduces the amplitude of the net depolarizing current and thus reduces the peak amplitude and the duration of the action potential.  (+info)

(2/578) Interactions between the foot and bud patterning systems in Hydra vulgaris.

In the freshwater coelenterate, hydra, asexual reproduction via budding occurs at the base of the gastric region about two-thirds of the distance from the head to the foot. Developmental gradients of head and foot activation and inhibition originating from these organizing centers have long been assumed to control budding in hydra. Much has been learned over the years about these developmental gradients and axial pattern formation, and in particular, the inhibitory influence of the head on budding is well documented. However, understanding of the role of the foot and potential interactions between the foot, bud, and head patterning systems is lacking. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of the foot in the initiation of new axis formation during budding by manipulating the foot and monitoring effects on the onset of first bud evagination and the time necessary to reach the 50% budding point. Several experimental situations were examined: the lower peduncle and foot (PF) were injured or removed, a second PF was laterally grafted onto animals either basally (below the budding zone) or apically (above the budding zone), or both the head and PF were removed simultaneously. When the PF was injured or removed, the onset of first bud evagination was delayed and/or the time until the 50% budding point was reached was longer. The effects were more pronounced when the manipulation was performed closer to the anticipated onset of budding. When PF tissue was doubled, precocious bud evagination was induced, regardless of graft location. Removal of the PF at the same time as decapitation reduced the inductive effect of decapitation on bud evagination. These results are discussed in light of potential signals from the foot or interactions between the foot and head patterning systems that might influence bud axis initiation.  (+info)

(3/578) Olfactory adaptation depends on the Trp Ca2+ channel in Drosophila.

Olfactory adaptation is shown to occur in Drosophila, at both behavioral and physiological levels. In a behavioral paradigm, the extent of adaptation is shown to depend on the dose and duration of the adapting stimulus. Half-maximal adaptation occurred after 15 sec of exposure to an odor, and recovery occurred with a half-time of 1. 5 min, under a set of test conditions. Cross-adaptation was observed among all odor combinations tested, although to a lesser extent than when the same odor was used as both the adapting and the test stimulus. Mutants of the transient receptor potential (Trp) Ca2+ channel were normal in olfactory response, but defective in olfactory adaptation, when measured either behaviorally or in tests of antennal physiology. These results indicate that olfactory response and adaptation can be distinguished. Trp expression was detected in the developing antenna but, surprisingly, not in the mature antenna. These results, together with temperature-shift analysis of a temperature-sensitive trp mutant, provide evidence of a role of Trp in olfactory system development.  (+info)

(4/578) A lobster phospholipase C-beta that associates with G-proteins in response to odorants.

A cDNA clone encoding a protein of 1116 amino acids with significant homology to beta-isoforms of phospholipase C was isolated from lobster olfactory organ cDNA libraries and named lobPLCbeta. This cDNA hybridized predominantly to a 9 kb transcript in RNA from olfactory organ, pereiopod, brain, and eye-eyestalk and to several smaller minor transcripts only in eye-eyestalk. An antiserum raised to the C terminus of lobPLCbeta detected immunoreactivity in a single 130 kDa band in olfactory aesthetasc hairs, olfactory organ, pereiopod, dactyl, and brain. In eye-eyestalk this 130 kDa band was abundant, and minor bands of 100, 79, and 57 kDa also were detected. In cross sections of the aesthetasc hairs, immunoreactivity was detected in the outer dendritic segments of the olfactory receptor neurons, the site of olfactory transduction. A complex odorant caused lobPLCbeta immunoreactivity to increase in membrane fractions and decrease in soluble fractions of homogenates of aesthetasc hairs. The odorant also increased the amount of lobPLCbeta in immunoprecipitates of Galphaq and Gbeta from homogenates of aesthetasc hairs. These results support the conclusion that lobPLCbeta mediates olfactory transduction.  (+info)

(5/578) Differential expression of Tbx4 and Tbx5 in Zebrafish fin buds.

In here we report the identification of two new members of the T-box gene family, zf-tbx5 and zf-tbx4, from the Zebrafish, Danio rerio. The amino acid sequences within the T-box domain share high homology with the mouse, chick, and newt orthologs. Whole mount in situ hybridization revealed specific expression of these genes in the eye and Fin buds. zf-tbx5 expression is restricted to the pectoral Fin bud, whilst zf-tbx4 transcripts are confined in the pelvic Fin bud. These results reveal the conserved expression pattern of Tbx5 and Tbx4 during appendage development in all animal species studied to date.  (+info)

(6/578) Response characteristics of an identified, sexually dimorphic olfactory glomerulus.

Partitioning of synaptic neuropil into glomeruli is a common feature of primary olfactory centers in most animal species. The functional significance of glomeruli, however, is not yet well understood. The present study is part of our effort to test the hypothesis that each glomerulus is a functional unit dedicated to processing information about a particular odorant or attribute of odor molecules and that the glomerular array constitutes a map of "odor space." We investigated the physiological and morphological features of uniglomerular projection neurons (PNs) associated with an identified glomerulus in each antennal lobe of the female sphinx moth, Manduca sexta. This "lateral large female glomerulus" (latLFG) is sexually dimorphic and therefore may play a female-specific role, such as processing of information about one or more odorants important for orientation of a female to host plants for oviposition. Together with the medial LFG (medLFG), the latLFG resides outside the array of spheroidal ordinary glomeruli, near the entrance of the antennal (olfactory) nerve. Each LFG is innervated by four to five PNs. Using intracellular recording and staining, we examined the responses of latLFG-PNs to odorants that represent major classes of volatiles released by host plants of M. sexta. All latLFG-PNs were excited when the ipsilateral antenna was stimulated with low concentrations of the monoterpenoid linalool. Dose-response analysis showed that neither other monoterpenoids nor representatives of other classes of host plant volatiles were similarly stimulatory to latLFG-PNs. These findings are consistent with the idea that each glomerulus has a characteristic, limited molecular receptive range.  (+info)

(7/578) amos, a proneural gene for Drosophila olfactory sense organs that is regulated by lozenge.

In a variety of organisms, early neurogenesis requires the function of basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors. For the Drosophila PNS, such transcription factors are encoded by the proneural genes (atonal and the achaete-scute complex, AS-C). We have identified a proneural gene, amos, that has strong similarity with atonal in its bHLH domain. We present evidence that amos is required for olfactory sensilla and is regulated by the prepattern gene lozenge. Between them, amos, atonal, and the AS-C can potentially account for the origin of the entire PNS.  (+info)

(8/578) Essential roles of Drosophila RhoA in the regulation of neuroblast proliferation and dendritic but not axonal morphogenesis.

The pleiotropic functions of small GTPase Rho present a challenge to its genetic analysis in multicellular organisms. We report here the use of the MARCM (mosaic analysis with a repressible cell marker) system to analyze the function of RhoA in the developing Drosophila brain. Clones of cells homozygous for null RhoA mutations were specifically labeled in the mushroom body (MB) neurons of mosaic brains. We found that RhoA is required for neuroblast (Nb) proliferation but not for neuronal survival. Surprisingly, RhoA is not required for MB neurons to establish normal axon projections. However, neurons lacking RhoA overextend their dendrites, and expression of activated RhoA causes a reduction of dendritic complexity. Thus, RhoA is an important regulator of dendritic morphogenesis, while distinct mechanisms are used for axonal morphogenesis.  (+info)


  • (1-3) Because of the increasing technical ability to manipulate and study gene expression in the mouse, there is a growing interest in and use of the aged mouse as an animal model to study age-related bone loss in humans. (
  • The most significant results of this research will come from a comparison between those data for humans and corresponding animal remains which may allow the identification of animal-human vectors and their interaction. (
  • Some animals are more eloquent than previously thought and have a communication structure similar to the vowel and consonant system of humans, according to new research. (
  • Insulin from animal sources differs somewhat in 'strength' (in carbohydrate metabolism control effects) in humans because of those variations. (
  • Although animal models have shed some light on the subcortical and brainstem structures involved in the control of locomotion, little is known of the precise involvement of these structures in humans, or their disruption in patients with gait disorders. (


  • A total ban is the only hope for the world's largest living land animal. (
  • The Leuser ecosystem in northern Sumatra is home to some of the world's rarest and best-loved animals. (

Bone Structure

  • Most kinds of vertebrates possess similar bone structure to allow for the growth of their skeletons as they mature. (


  • The study found that no Ivy League school had a "good track record" in respect to adherence to the Animal Welfare Act. (


  • 2015 Mortimer, B. - Animal silks: denatured super proteins, Interface column in Biological Sciences Review, November issue. (
  • I believe that the tertiary structure is what give the proteins there overall shape (I think, correct me if I'm wrong) and that this then means that they can perform different functions. (
  • Several proteins associated to form a larger complex is the quaternary structure of a protein e.g. (
  • In bacteria that are pathogenic for animals, type III secretion systems allow extracellular bacteria adhering to the surface of a host cell to inject specialized proteins across the plasma membrane. (


  • The animals' deafness results from an inability to translate sound stimulation into the release of a chemical nerve messenger, or neurotransmitter, that would usually pass that information to auditory nerves and on to the brain, they reported. (
  • Although surprising, the absence of oscillations in awake animals may allow each neuron to process acoustic information independently of its neighbors and may in fact benefit auditory perception. (


  • Keeping such large, intelligent and endangered animals in captivity poses a number of ethical and practical challenges. (


  • Greenland sharks have a unique eye structure in that the lens grows throughout an animal's lifetime. (


  • Structures and uses shall conform to the Rules and Regulations for Protection from Contamination for Public Water Supplies within the Town of LeRay and the distance separation requirements from community water supplies as stated in § 158-60 . (
  • suggested that the structure of the aminoalkylindole cannabinoids might conform to a three-point attachment model with points of attachment at the naphthalene ring at the C7 position, the carbonyl group and the morpholinoethyl group (fig. 1 ). (


  • Bones are not solid structures, since to be so would require them to be far too heavy to enable efficient movement. (
  • By examining human and animal bones from this site, the researchers will be able to see how the first people living in a crowded situation developed the diseases of crowds and how this affected the disease through changes in DNA of both the microbes and the people. (


  • The foundations work is being applied to major testing methods required by the Food and Drug Administration, the Environmental Protection Service, and international regulatory testing agencies and include acute and chronic oral, dermal, and inhalation toxicity, all of which cause extreme pain and suffering to the animals used. (


  • Laurella, 2012 Adaptations PHYSICAL BEHAVIORAL are body structures that allow an animal to find and consume food, defend itself, and to reproduce its species. (
  • If the species is rare, the death of even one long-lived animal could be a huge loss. (
  • Insulin's structure varies slightly between species of animal. (


  • Not only is testing toxic substances on animals cruel, it's also bad science," says PETA Director Jessica Sandler. (


  • Indeed, it is difficult to think of any highly social animal that does not possess a complex system of communication. (


  • Becoming social presumably leads to the origin of social communication in animals, but its subsequent influence on the trajectory of signal evolution has been neither clear-cut nor general among taxonomic groups. (


  • So-called simple animal sound expressions might be far more complex than was previously thought possible," concluded the report published in BMC Biology journal. (


  • We hope that our gift to the International QSAR Foundation will be an incentive for others in the scientific community to move away from outdated, ineffective, and cruel animal testing. (


  • Normally, when an animal dies, its remains are scavenged and/or destroyed through decomposition. (
  • The sensory structures within the mutant animals' ears otherwise appeared to develop normally. (


  • To further examine the gene's role in a living animal, the researchers studied "knockout" mice completely lacking a functional otoferlin gene. (
  • Studying the abbreviated call of the mongoose, researchers at the University of Zurich have found they are the first animals to communicate with sound units that are even smaller than syllables and yet still contain information about who is calling and why. (
  • The researchers, lead by biologist Marta Manser, say they believe other animals are capable of having more intricate call structures too. (


  • It can also help to bolster conservation management strategies for the animals in question. (


  • However, under rare circumstances (e.g., burial under sediment at the bottom of a lake, stream, river, or sea during a flood, or under sand during storms, or under ash during volcanic eruptions) animals can be preserved through rapid burial. (
  • 6 Rather than speaking of a coral reef ecosystem, which would have developed slowly, the limestone deposits interspersed with shale in the Gogo formation, together with the magnificent preservation of the anatomical structure of the fish buried, suggest a recent catastrophic burial during the Genesis Flood. (


  • They went to the laboratory and they tested animals. (
  • Duluth, Minn. Tomorrow, PETA will donate $120,000 to the Duluth-based International QSAR Foundation to Reduce Animal Testing to further its important work aimed at improving toxicity testing and saving the lives of millions of animals who are routinely maimed and killed in laboratory experiments. (


  • We had an expectation that they would be very long-lived animals, but I was surprised that they turned out to be as old as they did," says study leader Julius Nielsen , a biologist at the University of Copenhagen. (
  • The report found that only Columbia University had a lower Research Misconduct Score than Dartmouth, and that Columbia and Dartmouth are the only two schools in the Ivy League to have no repeat violations of USDA regulations on animal testing. (


  • These structures were compared to those of modern ostriches, which were processed in a similar manner (except that the tissue needed to be chemically stained to visualize the tissue. (
  • At that time, all people in the world were living lives similar to the people who lived in the temporary structure in Medina County, Mr. Brose said. (
  • An indention and cavity with a net sack or similar structure (into which the balls are to be struck) at each corner and one centered on each side of a pool or snooker table. (


  • Many people are surprised to learn that the beautiful coral structures that make up a tropical reef contain millions of microscopic animals. (
  • Studying wild banded mongooses in Uganda, behavioural biologists discovered that the calls of the animals are structured and contain different information - a sound structure that has some similarities to the vowel and consonant system of human speech. (


  • QSAR methodology uses mathematical modeling of the structure of chemicals to determine their levels of toxicity. (


  • The secret behind the success of this study is that we had young and old animals, medium-sized and large animals, and we could compare them all," Nielsen notes. (
  • Over the last decade, a large number of studies have characterized stimulus-evoked oscillations in the visual cortex of anesthetized and unanesthetized animals. (
  • Elephant feet have peculiar structures that can also be seen in other large-bodied animals. (


  • These questions lie at the very foundation of how we believe communication evolved in animals. (


  • Results from a carbon-dating study received about two weeks ago placed the remains of the structure at about 10,200 B.C. -- 7,000 years before the pharaohs of Egypt. (
  • In this study, a series of indole- and pyrrole-derived cannabinoids was developed, in which the morpholinoethyl group was replaced with another cyclic structure or with a carbon chain that more directly corresponded to the side chain of Δ 9 -THC and were tested for CB1 binding affinity and in a battery of in vivo tests, including hypomobility, antinociception, hypothermia and catalepsy in mice and discriminative stimulus effects in rats. (


  • This is just behavior (as in animal behavior ), not emotion and yearning structured by some great tradition, cultural or artistic. (
  • It was great to see you at the Northwest Animal Rights Network potluck! (
  • Women demonstrate in Kenya's Great Rift Valley against the export of wild animals from the Maasai Mara National Park. (


  • It's unknown why they live so long, but cold environments cause low body temperatures, which in turn means slow metabolism-and thus less damage to animals' tissues. (
  • A pouch in an animal body, such as the cheek pouch of a rodent or the abdominal pouch of a marsupial. (


  • Anisotropy decreased while the structure model index increased with age. (
  • The major objective of this research was developing the first spatial attention task in mice, and leverage this genetically tractable animal model to dissect the underlying microcircuit, we aim to reveal new fundamental principles controlling rapid changes sensory information processing in the brain. (


  • People and animals alarmed. (
  • This is when people start to introspect, using a specific network of brain structures. (


  • Carbon-dating of charcoal found in a pit area near the structure revealed vegetation dating as far back as 13,120 years ago, which means the area was free from glacial ice for at least 700 years. (
  • While we committed public money to create the technology for flying to the moon, there has been little public funding for the QSAR technology that eliminates the need for the animal tests used back in the 1960s. (


  • The life story of any animal involves daily struggles and triumphs, twists and turns - and each individual has its own unique narrative. (


  • This close-loop control engages animals in a manner designed to emulate the immersive environment of 'video-game. (


  • While whale and bird songs are a little more complex than most animal sounds - in that they are repeatedly combined with new arrangements - they don't pattern themselves after human syllables with their combination of vowels and consonants. (
  • There were all these animals that had no fear of human beings. (
  • By understanding sleep across animals we can gain insights into improving the quality of human sleep. (


  • Several days after the dog's pancreas was removed, Minkowski's animal keeper noticed a swarm of flies feeding on the dog's urine. (


  • Those interested in providing animal-waste energy must be able to generate up to 10 megawatts, be directly connected to the regional electricity grid and start supplying power to the state by Dec. 31, 2015. (


  • Many other animals hibernate, from various birds and reptiles to mammals such as woodchucks and rodents. (


  • The initial sound of the call provides information on the identity of the animal calling," said David Jansen, a member of the research team. (


  • Under the direction of founder Dr. Gilman Veitha pioneer of a technology known as quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR)the foundation's work holds promise for greatly reducing the number of animals used in chemical safety testing by developing databases and computer modeling tools that increase the accuracy of QSAR models. (


  • The primary structure is simply the sequence of amino acids as determined by the process of translation in protein synthesis. (
  • The late onset of levodopa resistance of Parkinson's disease gait abnormalities has been suggested to result from the progressive extension of the degenerative process to non-dopaminergic structures involved in locomotion, such as cortico-frontal and brainstem networks. (


  • In contrast, inner hair cells are "the genuine sensory cells transmitting information on the temporal structure and intensity of sound to the central nervous system," Petit said. (


  • Akron, Ohio Evidence of what is being described as the oldest structure ever found in North America has been discovered in Sharon Township in Medina County, according to David Brose, the chief curator of archaeology at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History. (
  • Charcoal found in the post holes indicates that the structure may have burned. (
  • Until this discovery, the oldest structure uncovered in North America was found in the Illinois River Valley in the 1960s. (


  • This "virtual testing" will also improve the development of in vitro methodsproducing results that are faster, more accurate, less expensive, and far more humane than animal tests. (


  • Food hoarding in animals. (


  • The findings raise questions over whether lower animals might also be capable of something akin to introspection. (


  • For these animals, it is the male's responsibility to fertilize and carry the young after successfully capturing the attention of a female. (
  • All the attention revolves around two structures, the spiracle opening and the pectoral fin. (


  • The ratio of the aggregate gross floor area for all structures divided by the total lot area shall not exceed 0.6 for any contiguous development. (
  • Mr. Brose said the structure existed in a location that was below a ridge and above an area that was once a bog. (


  • Mice move the visual cue to a location on either the upper or lower hemifield which is the final locus where animal should perform a visual discrimination. (


  • This opening in Gogonasus is 'thought to be the forerunner for the middle ear in modern land animals. (


  • This honeycomb-like structure actually hangs from and hides an underlying, supporting framework. (


  • help an animal survive in its environment. (
  • Their bodies have developed numerous traits to help the animal cope with the sand, wind, heat and cold that are commonplace in a desert habitat. (

What structures help increase the absorption of food in the small intestine? How do they do this?

  • What structures help increase the absorption of food in the small intestine? How do they do this?
  • Those structures are called intestinal villi. To learn more about how they help with food absorption, click the link:

What structures does blood take through the lungs to become oxygenated?

  • I know that when you eat food, it goes through the digestive tract, dissolves into the blood, but when it goes to the lungs, what structures does it pass through? is it just the alveoli, or bronchi, bronchioles too? The bronchi etc are meant for air. So does the blood just flow around the capillaries in the alveoli and that's how it's oxygenated? And after that lung part, it'll go back to the heart, then be pumped to the body. Correct? (: thanks again!
  • about it you can get information from here

How important is animal life to you?

  • Nice Guy Wrote in a previous question: “Matt has basically stated that animals are equally important as humans. I'm sorry, but no animals life has as much importance or relevance as that of a human. For one to think that an animals life is just as important as his own is absurd. Can anyone possibly believe that the life of a pig, cow, or chicken can even compare to the life of a human being?” How do you feel about this? Does an animal's interest in living have any weight in our deciding how we treat said animal? How is an animal's interest in continued existence qualitatively any different than our own? I'm not trying to give Nice Guy a hard time, I just think this is something that should be discussed, and his answer provides a good starting point. We have some real deep thinkers responding so far. Beebs' Answer sort of misses the point of this question. But to the point it does adress I could not agree more. What I would like people to ponder is that animals have the same interest in their continued existence that you do yours. We have no morally relevant reason to respect a human's interest in continued life wile denying to afford animals the same consideration. @ Niceguy, I wrote you a responce but it is too long to fit here. You can find it here: Take care -Matt @ Nice guy: I’m fairly disappointed in your last post. If you want to debate these issues then lets go. If not, then don’t pretend to engage in one and then back out mid discussion. You say “I believe my goal of simply reducing animal suffering to a minimum, is simply more realistic than that of abolishing it.” And I give you plenty of reasons (and there are plenty more) as to why that will never happen, which you make no attempt to address. You also say, “And though veganism can perhaps make a very small difference, I don't think it can, will, or ever has lead to any significant noticeable change.” I find this a very curious statement to make seeing as the term “Vegan” has only been around for about seventy years, and the theory of abolition has only been with us for thirty years. Animal welfare on the other hand has been around for at least two hundred years, or if you consider India then around 2000 would be more accurate... I fail to see your historical basis for making the claim that Veganism and abolition cannot create change, it has not had the chance to. Finally, a Vegan diet (or very near Vegan diet) can work for everyone. Read the China Study. Also who are these “credible sources” that claim to be against a Vegan diet? Name names, I’m sure it would be interesting to see just how credible they really are. First, in response to your comments regarding the health of Vegans, I used “very near vegan diet” in parentheses after the words “Vegan diet” The near Vegan diet was referring to Dr. Dean Ornish’s early work in reversing heart disease. The “Vegan diet” which appeared out of parentheses referenced all other works by prominent scientists such as, Dr. T Colin Campbell, and Dr. Neal Barnard. Even the American Dietetic Association agrees that a Vegan diet is completely healthy by saying, “Well-planned vegan and other types of vegetarian diets are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood and adolescence.” Second, with regard to your “intuition” about the animal rights movement, I guess we are just expected to take your opinion because you do not “foresee” a radical change in people’s diet? I think you were right, we are done here in regards to Animal Rights Vs. Animal Welfare. . You obviously are ignorant to even the most basic augments from each side, let alone the state of the movement and the struggle that is taking place for the grass-roots sections of the movement to beat back the corporate welfare groups that have done nothing but retard growth. In sum, your information about the healthfulness of Veganism is outdated at best, misinformed at worst, and your “intuition” about the possibilities and direction of the Animal Rights movement is just plain wrong.
  • I recently saw pictures of a Hurricane Katrina animal rescue. I saw houses that were destroyed, and next to the house, would be a dog, tied to a steak.... It made me SICK. Thinking of it now brings up so much anger in me. What kind of depraved person would do that. It was not as though there were seconds left, and they were going to be beamed out by Scottie in immediately. There was a long, slow evacuation process, and they left those animals to slowly die. If your house is burning down, you try to save your animals. I will say though, that you save your children first. But you bring an animal into your house and under your protection, you better care for it. ____________________ I once had to do a report on the Psychology of Slavery for an African American Lit class. One thing I noticed through my reading was that slaves verbally lost their human status. They were often called animals. I decided to do an extensive survey about this, but the only group we verbally do such a thing to today is actual animals. We call one “pet” so we know to love them. The other we call “animal” so we can distinguish not to care about them and believe we have a right to torture and kill them. After the animal is killed, we call it “meat” so we never have to make any mental correlation. My search was to find where we draw the line as we have done this to groups of people over and over again throughout history. I am just saying the same mental process people used to go through the African American Holocaust is the same mental process we use to make animal slaughtering ok today. It is something we click on and off, and the words we use to describe a being have a lot do to with it. I had many categories in my survey, which I gave to the students in all my classes. One section was “Animals.” I had questions such as: “Would you eat a cow?”, “IF you were starving, would you kill a cow to eat?” … eat a dog, starving, kill a dog, kill your OWN dog I even went on to compare animals to people. I found that many people, in a hypothetical world, would kill a human stranger before killing their own dog... and yet, would eat a dog if they needed food. Familiarity and how much we are willing to know about an animal has a great deal to do with things. ___________________ Another tool we use is how to condone such behavior is understanding. Understanding does not mean language, but culture. If we had not yet discovered the other hemisphere (I’m in the U.S.) and we set on a voyage to France. We would not be able to understand the language, but the culture would be similar enough to our own that we would consider them *like us* aka, civilized society. If we went to a place where people lived of the land, half naked or naked, in small tribes (and we had not been exposed to this before) we would label them as *not like us,* uncivilized and animal like. This is historically accurate, so you know it is true. We grow up with dogs. We can tell they understand us; culturally, we have come to understand when they are happy and sad; we have come to know they feel pain, and we feel for that pain. We know no such things of cows. If human culture had made different choices in history and randomly decided to have cows or pigs living in their homes, and decided to eat dogs/wolves, then we would be giving our pet pigs presents on Christmas and have cats and dogs in factory farming without every questioning. ________________________ I am sorry I got so very very off track, I have just put a lot of thought into the value we place on life and its relationship to language and culture. To answer your question, I believe life is important, and no living creature deserves to suffer needlessly. Yes, an antelope is going to suffer when a lioness or what have you kills it, but that death needed to happen. However, as a human, I suppose I do consider human life more important. If I was in a hypothetical situation where someone was going to kill me or kill my cat, I would choose my cat (sorry Simone!) But if it was kill me or kill my nephew, I would choose me. The optimal situation is of course that I save me, my cat and my nephew, but that’s not what hypotheticals are all about. If the situation was torture however, I would have a difficult time condoning the torture of another at all. What all this means on the grand scheme of things? I have no friggen clue. You wanted discussion, so I rambled my behind off like I have never rambled my behind off before. Just email me if you want me to take this long rant off your question. :) EDIT: Yes, I believe animals have the same interests in continuing to exist that I do. I believe they don't want to be tortured, and they don't want to die. (Who would?) I believe they protect their young; I believe they mourn; I believe they fear; I believe they suffer, and I believe they want.

What animal products are in which types of makeup?

  • I know that collagen is derived from boiled animal tendons and bones, and that it is used in lipstick. But I need to know what other animal products are used in what kinds of makeup. Thanks!
  • ^There's alot of animal ingredients used for makeup in there as well as alternatives to those ingredients. You can also google it to find more sites that would contain the information that you are looking for. :)

What is the best vegan or non- animal tested shampoo and conditioner?

  • I have used Treseme and they don't test on animals but they use some animal derived ingredients. I want to know what the best vegan and /or not animal tested shampoo. Oh and I know Suave is vegan except the fact that it's been tested on animals.
  • Kiss My Face I like Big Body Shampoo and Mistreated Conditioner (Whenever conditioner is also good) There is also Aubrey Organics, Jason, Nature's Gate, ABBA and Giovanni (I liked this but it gave me too many flyaways, I have very frizzy hair naturally).

What state has the largest animal agriculture?

  • I have to write an essay about the negative effects of animal agriculture but I have to be specific (geographically). What state has the largest animal agriculture in the US? More details about the topic would be great too! Thank you. Category Science & Mathematics > Agriculture
  • It depends on the type of animal. According to the Cattle Network, the state with the most cattle ranches is Texas, which has over twice as many head of cattle as number 2- Kansas. The states which kill the most pigs are Iowa and North Carolina. North Carolina, Minnesota and California kill the most turkeys. Alabama, Arkansas and Georgia kill the most chickens.

Is there a website that evaluates or tracks humane animal treatment for animals used for food?

  • My husband and I enjoy our meat but i am really disturbed at some of the horror stories I have heard or seen about animals being treated terribly if they are going to be used for food. I am backing cage free eggs 100% to make sure that they are not being mistreated. Now I am planning to get a turkey for Thanksgiving and I wanted to find out about the companies/farms that process the animal to make sure I am not supporting harm towards animals. So basically I am wondering if there is a website that evaluates or digs into companies so I know which products to support or not support? I appreciate any answers you may have
  • By killing something you are technically harming it. There is a lot of inaccurate information written on here with regards to farming of animals. Most farmers treat their animals well. By not treating them well, they lessen the price of the end product. That would be bad business. Milking cows are very content in their environment. They are well looked after. If you maltreat a cow she will stop milking due to stress. I'm not saying there is no cruelty in this world. Heavens above, many humans maltreat other humans, but don't believe everything you read or hear. I doubt you'll find a true and independent website with regards to your question. I was an agricultural student years ago

Is a animal cracker a cracker or a cookie?

  • Is a animal cracker a cracker or a cookie. I mean look at the fact and the Characteristic.
  • I believe that the British call cookies "crackers", if I am not mistaken