AfricaSouth Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Africa South of the Sahara: All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).Africa, Western: The geographical area of Africa comprising BENIN; BURKINA FASO; COTE D'IVOIRE; GAMBIA; GHANA; GUINEA; GUINEA-BISSAU; LIBERIA; MALI; MAURITANIA; NIGER; NIGERIA; SENEGAL; SIERRA LEONE; and TOGO.Africa, Southern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ANGOLA; BOTSWANA; LESOTHO; MALAWI; MOZAMBIQUE; NAMIBIA; SOUTH AFRICA; SWAZILAND; ZAMBIA; and ZIMBABWE.Africa, Eastern: The geographical area of Africa comprising BURUNDI; DJIBOUTI; ETHIOPIA; KENYA; RWANDA; SOMALIA; SUDAN; TANZANIA; and UGANDA.Africa, Central: The geographical area of Africa comprising CAMEROON; CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC; CHAD; CONGO; EQUATORIAL GUINEA; GABON; and DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO.Africa, Northern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ALGERIA; EGYPT; LIBYA; MOROCCO; and TUNISIA. It includes also the vast deserts and oases of the Sahara. It is often referred to as North Africa, French-speaking Africa, or the Maghreb. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p856)HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Guinea: A republic in western Africa, south of SENEGAL and MALI, east of GUINEA-BISSAU. Its capital is Conakry.Asia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Cameroon: A republic in central Africa lying east of CHAD and the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and west of NIGERIA. The capital is Yaounde.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Benin: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER and between TOGO and NIGERIA. Its capital is Porto-Novo. It was formerly called Dahomey. In the 17th century it was a kingdom in the southern area of Africa. Coastal footholds were established by the French who deposed the ruler by 1892. It was made a French colony in 1894 and gained independence in 1960. Benin comes from the name of the indigenous inhabitants, the Bini, now more closely linked with southern Nigeria (Benin City, a town there). Bini may be related to the Arabic bani, sons. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p136, 310 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p60)Ghana: A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Medicine, African Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the African peoples. It includes treatment by medicinal plants and other materia medica as well as by the ministrations of diviners, medicine men, witch doctors, and sorcerers.Burkina Faso: A republic in western Africa, south and east of MALI and west of NIGER. Its capital is Ouagadougou. It was formerly called Upper Volta until 1984.Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Middle East: The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Mali: A country in western Africa, east of MAURITANIA and south of ALGERIA. Its capital is Bamako. From 1904-1920 it was known as Upper Senegal-Niger; prior to 1958, as French Sudan; 1958-1960 as the Sudanese Republic and 1959-1960 it joined Senegal in the Mali Federation. It became an independent republic in 1960.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Malawi: A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.Gambia: A republic in western Africa, constituting an enclave within SENEGAL extending on both sides of the Gambia River. Its capital is Banjul, formerly Bathurst.Togo: A republic in western Africa, lying between GHANA on its west and BENIN on its east. Its capital is Lome.Antimalarials: Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)Cote d'Ivoire: A republic in western Africa, south of MALI and BURKINA FASO, bordered by GHANA on the east. Its administrative capital is Abidjan and Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983. The country was formerly called Ivory Coast.Zimbabwe: A republic in southern Africa, east of ZAMBIA and BOTSWANA and west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Harare. It was formerly called Rhodesia and Southern Rhodesia.South AmericaAnti-Retroviral Agents: Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Malaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.Zambia: A republic in southern Africa, south of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and TANZANIA, and north of ZIMBABWE. Its capital is Lusaka. It was formerly called Northern Rhodesia.Gabon: A republic in west equatorial Africa, south of CAMEROON and west of the CONGO. Its capital is Libreville.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Hominidae: Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).Niger: A republic in western Africa, north of NIGERIA and west of CHAD. Its capital is Niamey.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Archaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.Mozambique: A republic in southern Africa, south of TANZANIA, east of ZAMBIA and ZIMBABWE, bordered on the west by the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Maputo. It was formerly called Portuguese East Africa.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Human Migration: Periodic movement of human settlement from one geographical location to another.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Congo: A republic in central Africa lying between GABON and DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and south of Cameroon. Its capital is Brazzaville.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Botswana: A republic in southern Africa, between NAMIBIA and ZAMBIA. It was formerly called Bechuanaland. Its capital is Gaborone. The Kalahari Desert is in the west and southwest.Guinea-Bissau: A republic in western Africa, south of SENEGAL and west of GUINEA. Its capital is Bissau.Anopheles: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Endemic Diseases: The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)Chad: A republic in central Africa, east of NIGER, west of SUDAN and south of LIBYA. Its capital is N'Djamena.Mosquito Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Plasmodium falciparum: A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.Sierra Leone: A republic in western Africa, south of GUINEA and west of LIBERIA. Its capital is Freetown.Namibia: A republic in southern Africa, south of ANGOLA and west of BOTSWANA. Its capital is Windhoek.Rift Valley Fever: An acute infection caused by the RIFT VALLEY FEVER VIRUS, an RNA arthropod-borne virus, affecting domestic animals and humans. In animals, symptoms include HEPATITIS; abortion (ABORTION, VETERINARY); and DEATH. In humans, symptoms range from those of a flu-like disease to hemorrhagic fever, ENCEPHALITIS, or BLINDNESS.Anthropology, Physical: The comparative science dealing with the physical characteristics of humans as related to their origin, evolution, and development in the total environment.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Epidemics: Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.Central African Republic: A republic in central Africa south of CHAD and SUDAN, north of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, and east of CAMEROON. The capital is Bangui.Americas: The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.EuropeCD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Circumcision, Male: Excision of the prepuce of the penis (FORESKIN) or part of it.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Indian Ocean Islands: Numerous islands in the Indian Ocean situated east of Madagascar, north to the Arabian Sea and east to Sri Lanka. Included are COMOROS (republic), MADAGASCAR (republic), Maldives (republic), MAURITIUS (parliamentary democracy), Pemba (administered by Tanzania), REUNION (a department of France), and SEYCHELLES (republic).Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active: Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Anopheles gambiae: A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.HIV Seropositivity: Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Tropical Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Asia, Southeastern: The geographical area of Asia comprising BORNEO; BRUNEI; CAMBODIA; INDONESIA; LAOS; MALAYSIA; the MEKONG VALLEY; MYANMAR (formerly Burma), the PHILIPPINES; SINGAPORE; THAILAND; and VIETNAM.Angola: A republic in southern Africa, southwest of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and west of ZAMBIA. Its capital is Luanda.Asia, Western: The geographical designation for the countries of the MIDDLE EAST and the countries BANGLADESH; BHUTAN; INDIA; NEPAL; PAKISTAN; and SRI LANKA. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993 & Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Rift Valley fever virus: A mosquito-borne species of the PHLEBOVIRUS genus found in eastern, central, and southern Africa, producing massive hepatitis, abortion, and death in sheep, goats, cattle, and other animals. It also has caused disease in humans.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Satellite Communications: Communications using an active or passive satellite to extend the range of radio, television, or other electronic transmission by returning signals to earth from an orbiting satellite.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Pyrimethamine: One of the FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS that is used as an antimalarial or with a sulfonamide to treat toxoplasmosis.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Morocco: A country located in north Africa, bordering the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, with a southern border with Western Sahara, eastern border with Algeria. The capital is Rabat.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Lassa Fever: An acute febrile human disease caused by the LASSA VIRUS.Liberia: A republic in western Africa, south of GUINEA and east of COTE D'IVOIRE. Its capital is Monrovia.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Antitubercular Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Urbanization: The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.Madagascar: One of the Indian Ocean Islands off the southeast coast of Africa. Its capital is Antananarivo. It was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, its history has been tied predominantly to the French, becoming a French protectorate in 1882, a French colony in 1896, and a territory within the French union in 1946. The Malagasy Republic was established in the French Community in 1958 but it achieved independence in 1960. Its name was changed to Madagascar in 1975. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p714)Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Artemisinins: A group of SESQUITERPENES and their analogs that contain a peroxide group (PEROXIDES) within an oxepin ring (OXEPINS).Radiometric Dating: Techniques used to determine the age of materials, based on the content and half-lives of the RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES they contain.Djibouti: A republic in eastern Africa, on the Gulf of Aden at the entrance to the Red Sea. Djibouti is also the name of its capital.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Child, Orphaned: Child who has lost both parents through death or desertion.Sulfadoxine: A long acting sulfonamide that is used, usually in combination with other drugs, for respiratory, urinary tract, and malarial infections.Lost to Follow-Up: Study subjects in COHORT STUDIES whose outcomes are unknown e.g., because they could not or did not wish to attend follow-up visits.(from Dictionary of Epidemiology, 5th ed.)Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Swaziland: A kingdom in southern Africa, west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Mbabane. The area was settled by the Swazi branch of the Zulu nation in the early 1880's, with its independence guaranteed by the British and Transvaal governments in 1881 and 1884. With limited self-government introduced in 1962, it became independent in 1968. Swazi is the Zulu name for the people who call themselves Swati, from Mswati, the name of a 16th century king, from a word meaning stick or rod. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1170 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p527)Topography, Medical: The systematic surveying, mapping, charting, and description of specific geographical sites, with reference to the physical features that were presumed to influence health and disease. Medical topography should be differentiated from EPIDEMIOLOGY in that the former emphasizes geography whereas the latter emphasizes disease outbreaks.Mediterranean Region: The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis: Tuberculosis resistant to ISONIAZID and RIFAMPIN and at least three of the six main classes of second-line drugs (AMINOGLYCOSIDES; polypeptide agents; FLUOROQUINOLONES; THIOAMIDES; CYCLOSERINE; and PARA-AMINOSALICYLIC ACID) as defined by the CDC.Trypanosomiasis, African: A disease endemic among people and animals in Central Africa. It is caused by various species of trypanosomes, particularly T. gambiense and T. rhodesiense. Its second host is the TSETSE FLY. Involvement of the central nervous system produces "African sleeping sickness." Nagana is a rapidly fatal trypanosomiasis of horses and other animals.Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Rwanda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA, east of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, west of TANZANIA. Its capital is Kigali. It was formerly part of the Belgian trust territory of Ruanda-Urund.Insecticide Resistance: The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Chloroquine: The prototypical antimalarial agent with a mechanism that is not well understood. It has also been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and in the systemic therapy of amebic liver abscesses.Child Mortality: Number of deaths of children between one year of age to 12 years of age in a given population.Laboratory Personnel: Professionals, technicians, and assistants staffing LABORATORIES.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Disease Transmission, Infectious: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Chromosomes, Human, Y: The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant: Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Lassa virus: A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.Coinfection: Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.Sexual Partners: Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Onchocerciasis: Infection with nematodes of the genus ONCHOCERCA. Characteristics include the presence of firm subcutaneous nodules filled with adult worms, PRURITUS, and ocular lesions.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Latin America: The geographic area of Latin America in general and when the specific country or countries are not indicated. It usually includes Central America, South America, Mexico, and the islands of the Caribbean.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Lesotho: A kingdom in southern Africa, within the republic of SOUTH AFRICA. Its capital is Maseru.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Maps as Topic: Representations, normally to scale and on a flat medium, of a selection of material or abstract features on the surface of the earth, the heavens, or celestial bodies.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Burundi: A republic in eastern Africa bounded on the north by RWANDA and on the south by TANZANIA. Its capital is Bujumbura.Neglected Diseases: Diseases that are underfunded and have low name recognition but are major burdens in less developed countries. The World Health Organization has designated six tropical infectious diseases as being neglected in industrialized countries that are endemic in many developing countries (HELMINTHIASIS; LEPROSY; LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS; ONCHOCERCIASIS; SCHISTOSOMIASIS; and TRACHOMA).Capacity Building: Organizational development including enhancement of management structures, processes and procedures, within organizations and among different organizations and sectors to meet present and future needs.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Paleodontology: The study of the teeth of early forms of life through fossil remains.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Monkeypox virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing an epidemic disease among captive primates.Communicable Diseases, Emerging: Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.Anthropology: The science devoted to the comparative study of man.Plasmodium: A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Gene Flow: The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.Bedding and Linens: Articles of cloth, usually cotton or rayon and other synthetic or cotton-blend fabrics, used in households, hospitals, physicians' examining rooms, nursing homes, etc., for sheets, pillow cases, toweling, gowns, drapes, and the like.Sudan: A country in northeastern Africa. The capital is Khartoum.Manihot: A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE that is perennial with conspicuous, almost palmate leaves like those of RICINUS but more deeply parted into five to nine lobes. It is a source of a starch after removal of the cyanogenic glucosides. The common name of Arrowroot is also used with Maranta (MARANTACEAE). The common name of yuca is also used for YUCCA.Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Missions and Missionaries: To be used for articles pertaining to medical activities carried out by personnel in institutions which are administered by a religious organization.Community Health Workers: Persons trained to assist professional health personnel in communicating with residents in the community concerning needs and availability of health services.Population Growth: Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.Insect Bites and Stings: Bites and stings inflicted by insects.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.

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*  GUPEA: Africanizing scientific knowledge: the Multilateral Initiative on Malaria as a model?
GUPEA: Africanizing scientific knowledge: the Multilateral Initiative on Malaria as a model. Edit Profile. Department of Philosophy, Linguistics and Theory of Science / Institutionen för filosofi, lingvistik och vetenskapsteori. Artiklar / Institutionen för filosofi, lingvistik och vetenskapsteori. Africanizing scientific knowledge: the Multilateral Initiative on Malaria as a model. Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2077/24737. Title: Africanizing scientific knowledge: the Multilateral Initiative on Malaria as a model. Publication type: article, peer reviewed scientific. Organization: Department of Philosophy, Linguistics and Theory of Science, University of Gothenburg, Sweden. Abstract: Abstract In November 2009, the fifth Pan African Malaria conference was held in Nairobi. Thirteen years after the founding initiative in Dakar, the first African Secretariat based in Africa TANZANIA organized this major event for the malaria community. Looking back, it has been a l...
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*  Africa Videos, Africa Pictures, Africa Articles on Funny ...
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*  allAfrica.com: myAfrica - People
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*  .. Posts Tagged ‘Maker Faire Africa’ .. Maker Faire Africa comes to Jo’Burg .. B
Posts Tagged ‘ Maker Faire Africa ’. July 8, 2014. 7 comments. Maker Faire Africa comes to Jo’Burg. Maker Faire Africa was first held in Ghana in 2009, then Kenya 2010, Egypt 2011, Nigeria 2012 and now in South Africa 2014. It’s been an amazing thing to be a part of, and the best is to be there … Read more →. Posted in: AfriMakers, Event, Maker Faire Africa Share. Tweet. September 10, 2012. 3 comments. Bulb 2.0 and Maker Faire Africa 2012. For the price of Kshs. 30 /= EUR 0.27 or USD 0.35 you’ll manage to pick up this kerosine lamp from a kiosk in Kibera, Kenya: Certainly a great visual update to the famous tin can paraffin lamp which sells … Read more →. Posted in: Maker Faire Africa, Recycle Reuse Share. Tweet. August 27, 2010. 8 comments. Maker Faire Africa 2010 Begins. Maker Faire Africa 2010 has begun in Nairobi, Kenya. This is the second of what is becoming an annual event, an event that seeks to shed some light on the inventors, innovators and artists creating practical and interesting ideas – … Re...
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*  colonization - Why was Africa never really colonized? - History Stack Exchange
colonization - Why was Africa never really colonized. - History Stack Exchange. current community. chat blog. History. . History Meta. your communities. Sign up or log in to customize your list. more stack exchange communities. Stack Exchange. Inbox. Reputation and Badges. sign up log in tour. help. Tour Start here for a quick overview of the site. Help Center Detailed answers to any questions you might have. Meta Discuss the workings and policies of this site. History beta. Questions. Tags. Users. Badges. Unanswered. Ask Question. Sign up. History Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for historians and history buffs. It's 100% free, no registration required. Why was Africa never really colonized. up vote 9 down vote favorite. Possible Duplicate: Why was Africa colonized last of the continents in the Age of Discovery. When the British colonized the Americas and Australia, they made sure to move normal civilians in and take over the land, pushing the original natives out of their way either by kill...
http://history.stackexchange.com/questions/661/why-was-africa-never-really-colonized/667
*  allAfrica.com: myAfrica - Films
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*  allAfrica.com: myAfrica - People
... allAfrica News. Site Fran ais Section Accommodation Activities Books Films Music Organizations People Recipes Restaurants Photo Essays. Ebiti Onoyom Ndok. Nigeria Ebiti Onoyom Ndok - United National Party for Development UNPD. Professional Information edit Professional Areas: NGOs Position: National Chairperson of the United National Party for Development UNPD Working primarily in: Nigeria. Ebiti Onoyom Ndok is the National Chairperson of the United National Party for Development UNPD, the only female chairperson of a political party in the country. Other Posts from myAfrica Organizations. RESOURCE HUB FOR DEVELOPMENT R.H.D -Kenya Kenya, NGOs. Search for more People. Africa: Africa's Governance Winners, Losers and Surprises Africa: We Can Defeat Poverty - Melinda Gates Nigeria: We Have Clues to Boko Haram Sponsors - Army Africa: Africa's 'Light Bulb Moment' - by Bob Geldof and Strive Masiyiwa Africa: Africa Rising. No, Africa Stalled Tanzania: Nation Cannot Be Allowed to Be New Front for State-Led Islamo...
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*  allAfrica.com: myAfrica - Activities
... Site Fran ais Section Accommodation Activities Books Films Music Organizations People Recipes Restaurants Photo Essays. Hell's Gate National Park edit travel.allafrica.com Hell's Gate National Park. Hell's Gate National Park is a must-see for any visitor to Kenya. Anyone going to the country should exerciser extreme caution and consult the US State Department site on the Kenya before leaving for up to date information on the situation http://travel.state.gov/travel/cis pa tw/cis/cis 1151.html***** Area: About 1-2 hours outside Nairobi. Africa: Africa's Governance Winners, Losers and Surprises Africa: We Can Defeat Poverty - Melinda Gates Nigeria: We Have Clues to Boko Haram Sponsors - Army Africa: Africa's 'Light Bulb Moment' - by Bob Geldof and Strive Masiyiwa Africa: Africa Rising. No, Africa Stalled Tanzania: Nation Cannot Be Allowed to Be New Front for State-Led Islamophobia Uganda: Gen Bamuze Collapses At State House, Dies South Africa: The Cost of Death for the Living Africa: Malaria in Pregnancy L...
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*  .. The Top 10 Films of 2012 .. Related .. Author .. File Under .. Check out more from: .. Basia Lew
As always, end of year lists are met with anticipation; either by those eager to see the year in review, or by critics ready to decry what has been left off. For me, it has been an explosive year of African cinema; from the astronomic rise of interest in African sci-fi forgive the pun, to big-budget films getting the well-deserved attention of the European distribution market, incredibly powerful and moving activist filmmaking that has documented the shifting politics of the continent, to the wild and wonderful experimenters. Nairobi Half Life Kenya. Beautifully shot with an excellent soundtrack, Nairobi Half Life is an exciting first feature, and subsequently is getting a lot of hype across Kenya, and in Europe too. Dear Mandela South Africa. You can read my full review here. This is short filmmaking at its best. When China Met Africa UK. When China Met Africa focuses on the tales of a few individuals, whose work in on the African continent signifies the shifting tectonic plates of global alliances and inter...
http://africasacountry.com/2012/12/the-top-10-african-films-of-2012/
*  TEDx spotlights inspiring African ideas - CNN.com
... Breaking News. Toggle Search. International Edition. U.S. International Arabic Español Set edition preference Confirm. Search. News. World. Sport. Technology. Entertainment. Style. Travel. Money. Regions. U.S. China. Asia. Middle East. Africa. Europe. Americas. Video. Must Watch Videos. Shows. CNN en Español. TV. TV Shows. Schedule. Faces of CNN Worldwide. Features. Travel. All Features. Opinions. iReport. More…. Photos. Weather. CNN Mobile. Tools Extras. CNN Profiles A-Z. CNN Leadership. CNN Arabic. CNN Español. CNN Mexico. CNN Facebook. CNN Twitter. CNN Google+. CNN Heroes. Impact Your World. CNN Freedom Project. Quick Links Photos. Weather. CNN Mobile. Tools Extras. CNN Profiles A-Z. CNN Leadership. TEDx spotlights inspiring African ideas. By Ike Anya, Special to CNN. Updated 1056 GMT 1856 HKT November 30, 2012. Ike Anya, organizer of Tedx Euston. Story highlights. TEDxEuston aims to reflect the ideas of a "new generation of African leaders" 13 speakers will discuss how to engage with Africa Event wil...
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*  .. I Speak of Freedom, 1961 .. About the Author .. Council Member Paul A. Vallone Unveils Street
Published On: Fri, Dec 16th, 2011. Community / Education / NEWS IN FRENCH. By mcr2. I Speak of Freedom, 1961. Share This. Tags. Dr. Kwame Nkrumah 1909-1972 was the leader of Ghana, the former British colony of the Gold Coast and the first of the European colonies in Africa to gain independence with majority rule. Until he was deposed by a coup d’état in 1966, he was a major spokesman for modern Africa. Kwame Nkrumah. For centuries, Europeans dominated the African continent. The white man arrogated to himself the right to rule and to be obeyed by the non-white; his mission, he claimed, was to “civilize”Africa. Under this cloak, the Europeans robbed the continent of vast riches and inflicted unimaginable suffering on the African people. All this makes a sad story, but now we must be prepared to bury the past with its unpleasant memories and look to the future. All we ask of the former colonial powers is their goodwill and co-operation to remedy past mistakes and injustices and to grant independence to the colo...
http://muslimcommunityreport.com/2011/12/16/i-speak-of-freedom-1961/
*  .. Kings of Africa .. One Response to “Kings of Africa” .. Leave a Reply
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*  Plastics News -Africa - RSS News Feed
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*  Health Jobs, vacancies in Gauteng, Gauteng | Indeed.co.za
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http://indeed.co.za/Health-jobs-in-Gauteng,-Gauteng
*  Berlin Falls - Mpumalanga - Κριτικές από Berlin Falls - TripAdvisor
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*  Cleaning Jobs, vacancies in City of Tshwane, Gauteng | Indeed.co.za
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*  • Bins For Africa • Pretoria • Gauteng •
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*  HIV/AIDS in South African townships
... Web. False traditional beliefs about HIV/AIDS, which contribute to the spread of the disease, persist in townships due to the lack of education and awareness programmes in these regions. Although some education efforts and treatment and prevention programmes have succeeded in spreading awareness about HIV/AIDS in townships, the impact of the disease remains severe. Spread of the disease Sexual violence. AIDS orphans Education Treatment and prevention Attempts to address the epidemic National government. In 2008, HIV/AIDS was most prevalent in the South African provinces of KwaZulu-Natal 15.8% HIV-positive, Mpumalanga 15.4% HIV-positive, Free State 12.6% HIV-positive, and North West 11.3% HIV-positive, while only 3.8% of the population was HIV-positive in Western Cape. Print. Web. 8 Apr. Instead, the traditional beliefs of South Africans in townships have contributed to sexual violence in South Africa and stigmatized HIV-positive individuals, particularly women, thereby increasing the severity of the dise...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HIV/AIDS_in_South_African_townships
*  Property - Pretoria Gardens. Houses, Flats & Property To Let, Rent in Pretoria Gardens
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*  BRENO AUTO ELECTRICAL, Johannesburg Gauteng - Auto | Hotfrog SouthAfrica
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*  South African National Parks - SANParks - Official Website - Accommodation, Activities, Prices, Rese
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*  Head coach Gary Kirsten is interviewed during the South African... Fotografia de notícias | Getty I
Head coach Gary Kirsten is interviewed during the South African national cricket team nets session and press conference at Claremont Cricket Club on January 17, 2013 in Cape Town, South Africa. A general view of players during the South African national cricket team nets session and press conference at Claremont Cricket Club on January 17, 2013 in Cape Town, South Africa. Head coach Gary Kirsten is interviewed during the South African national cricket team nets session and press conference at Claremont Cricket Club on January 17, 2013 in Cape Town, South Africa. Head coach Gary Kirsten is interviewed during the South African national cricket team nets session and press conference at Claremont Cricket Club on January 17, 2013 in Cape Town, South Africa. Head coach Gary Kirsten is interviewed during the South African national cricket team nets session and press conference at Claremont Cricket Club on January 17, 2013 in Cape Town, South Africa. Quinton de Kock attends the South African national cricket team net...
http://gettyimages.pt/detail/fotografia-de-notícias/head-coach-gary-kirsten-is-interviewed-during-fotografia-de-notícias/159608205
*  Exotic Poultry | For sale | Farm | Poultry Breeds | Pretoria | Gauteng | South Africa
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*  • Reckitt Benckiser South Africa • Germiston • Gauteng •
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*  South African National Parks - SANParks - Official Website - Accommodation, Activities, Prices, Rese
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*  Laboratories in Western Cape
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*  Fire Fighting Equipment Sales & Service Gauteng - Results in Ananzi South African Directory search
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*  Artisan Electrician Jobs, vacancies in Ekurhuleni, Gauteng | Indeed.co.za
Artisan Electrician Jobs, vacancies in Ekurhuleni, Gauteng. Artisan Electrician jobs in Ekurhuleni, Gauteng. Exact location only within 5 kilometers within 10 kilometers within 15 kilometers within 25 kilometers within 50 kilometers within 100 kilometers. Jobs 1 to 10 of 71. - Wadeville, Gauteng. Trade tested Millwright/Electrician with N3/Matric and 3-5 years post qualification experience in plastics or high. JustTheJob.co.za - 5 days ago - save job - email - more... View all Wadeville, Gauteng jobs. Matric and Trade tested Electrical artisan minimum N3. PNet Jobs - 23 days ago - save job - email - more... Ubusha Recruitment - Johannesburg, Gauteng. Career Junction - 24 days ago - save job - email - more... View all Ubusha Recruitment jobs - Johannesburg jobs. - Kempton Park, Gauteng. JustTheJob.co.za - 26 days ago - save job - email - more... View all Kempton Park, Gauteng jobs. MAINTENANCE ELECTRICIAN. Anchor Executive Recruitment PTY LTD - Kempton Park, Gauteng. Career Junction - 2 days ago - save job - e...
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*  South African National Parks - SANParks - Official Website - Accommodation, Activities, Prices, Rese
... rvations. Skip to Content South African National Parks - SANParks. SANParks - South African National Parks Conserving nature since 1926 About Us. Kruger National Park. All of our South African National Parks offer park/camp-run accommodation. Online Bookings Browse accommodation availability, and book accommodation online via our secure payment system. SANParks Research Report. Kruger National Park scientists, researchers and veterinarian surgeons teamed up with crocodile experts and other ecologists from universities and other institutions in yet another attempt at trying to unravel the mystery of the crocodile deaths in the Olifants and Letaba rivers this week. Kruger National Park scientists, researchers and veterinarian surgeons teamed up with crocodile experts and other ecologists from universities and other institutions in yet another attempt at trying to unravel the mystery of the crocodile deaths in the Olifants and Letaba rivers this week. KNP veterinary surgeons conduct post mortems on crocodile...
http://sanparks.org/about/news/default.php?id=1002
*  Load body for Sale in Johannesburg, Gauteng Classified | SouthAfricanListed.com
Load body for Sale in Johannesburg, Gauteng Classified. SouthAfricanListed.com. For Sale Real Estate Services Jobs About Us Post Ad. All Classifieds / Gauteng / Car parts / Johannesburg. Load body in Johannesburg, Gauteng for sale. Expired ad Price:. Share:. Share on Facebook. Share on Twitter. Print this ad Edit your ad. Category:. Car parts Other:. The ad is older than 3 months. Address:. Johannesburg, Gauteng. Ek het 'n load body binnekant liner box vir Triton D/C Mitsubishi bakkie Kan binne 5 minute ingesit word Baie beter as rubber linning Spesifiek gemaak vir Mitsubishi R1200,00 Kontak my 0798202488 Stephan. Click here to search for more - Car parts in Gauteng. Price:. THE NEW AXONE S. AXONE S Designed to diagnose specific areas of vehicle maintenance mainly for fitters of tyres and fast fit stations.... Classifieds in:. Gauteng City: Germiston Category: Car parts. Price:. FIRST OF ITS KIND - AXONE S. AXONE S The AXONE S is the first product of its kind: a true multi-utility diagnostic tool. This tool i...
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*  Plumbers Johannesburg South - Emergency Plumbing Johannesburg South
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*  DCP: South Africa : Western Cape
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*  Precision Power Components, Elandsfontein Gauteng - Alternators | Hotfrog SouthAfrica
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*  The Cleaning Jobs, vacancies in Ekurhuleni, Gauteng | Indeed.co.za
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*  Broadcast vans are parked near the 1 Military Hospital where South... Nachrichtenfoto | Getty Images
Nelson Mandela has a lung infection but is responding to treatment, the South African government said today, as the revered anti-apartheid icon spent his fourth day in hospital. Nelson Mandela has a lung infection but is responding to treatment, the South African government said today, as the revered anti-apartheid icon spent his fourth day in hospital. Nelson Mandela has a lung infection but is responding to treatment, the South African government said today, as the revered anti-apartheid icon spent his fourth day in hospital. Nelson Mandela has a lung infection but is responding to treatment, the South African government said today, as the revered anti-apartheid icon spent his fourth day in hospital. Nelson Mandela has a lung infection but is responding to treatment, the South African government said today, as the revered anti-apartheid icon spent his fourth day in hospital. Nelson Mandela has a lung infection but is responding to treatment, the South African government said today, as the revered anti-apart...
http://gettyimages.de/detail/nachrichtenfoto/broadcast-vans-are-parked-near-the-1-military-hospital-nachrichtenfoto/158192658
*  Ford Fiesta Duratec 1.6 16V engine for Sale in Vereeniging, Gauteng Classified | SouthAfricanListed
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*  South Africa. Cape Province. Cape Town.
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*  Benoni Doctor | Find a Dr in Benoni, Gauteng, South Africa
benoni doctor find a dr in benoni gauteng south africa are you a doctor and want a free premier listing on doctor find co za recently searched doctor company all saints medi centre address all saints st bredasdorp city bredasdorp western cape phone doctors in city benoni gauteng south africa benoni south africa doctor find talk to your new benoni gauteng doctor now the benoni webpage for south africa dr find searches for your new doctor in benoni gauteng south africa the benoni doctor directory includes gps offices individual doctors joint medical clinics in the gauteng public system gauteng doctors performing private paid medical services in benoni like rhinoplasty or facelifts are found here although benoni dentists or benoni chiropractors or benoni psychologists are not also available are reviews of doctors in gauteng hoffman long bingle actonville hospital valve hospital pty ltd benoni chiropratic centre barnard lakefield pharmacy berman s a national blood service st john ambulance foundation bantu animal...
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*  R595,000 4 Bed Pretoria Gardens House For Sale - Property Info
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http://iolproperty.co.za/view-property.jsp?PID=3642763
*  Outcomes of the South African national antiretroviral treatment programme for children : the IeDEA s
... outhern Africa collaboration. Toggle navigation. Login. Toggle navigation. View Item. SUNScholar. Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Department of Paediatrics and Child Health. Research Articles Paediatrics and Child Health. View Item. SUNScholar. Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Department of Paediatrics and Child Health. Research Articles Paediatrics and Child Health View Item. Outcomes of the South African national antiretroviral treatment programme for children : the IeDEA southern Africa collaboration. To assess paediatric antiretroviral treatment ART outcomes and their associations from a collaborative cohort representing 20% of the South African national treatment programme. ART-na ve children ?16 years who commenced treatment with 3 antiretroviral drugs before March 2008. Associations between baseline characteristics and mortality were assessed with Cox proportional hazards models stratified by site. The median interquartile range age of 6 078 children with 9 368 child-years of follo...
http://scholar.sun.ac.za/handle/10019.1/7789
*  party supplies | parties | Johannesburg | Jozikids
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*  JAKARANDA HOSPITAL - Doctor in Pretoria | JAKARANDA HOSPITAL
JAKARANDA HOSPITAL - Doctor in Pretoria. JAKARANDA HOSPITAL. Are you a doctor and want a free premier listing on doctor-find.co.za. Latest Reviews of JAKARANDA HOSPITAL. Note: Doctors performing private paid medical services in Pretoria including angioplasty or face lifts are part of South African Doctor Find. Pretoria Dentists/ Pretoria Psychologists/ Pretoria Chiropractors have their own specialist directories. JAKARANDA HOSPITAL, Medical Professional in Pretoria. South Africa Doctor Find has the contact info, any reviews for JAKARANDA HOSPITAL. Info on JAKARANDA HOSPITAL includes main phone number, directions, opening hours. The Pretoria directory can be used to find individual GPs or Practicing Specialists. Gauteng Doctors performing private paid medical services in Pretoria including lasik surgery or face lifts are part of the list, although Pretoria dentists/ Pretoria psychologists/ Pretoria chiropractors are not. JAKARANDA HOSPITAL 213 Middelburg St,Muckleneuk,Pretoria, 0002 Pretoria, Phone: 012 421-67...
http://doctor-find.co.za/1132-doctor-jakaranda-hospital.html
*  South African National Halaal Authority - Fordsburg - Fordsburg Muslim Meat, Gauteng
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http://sanha.co.za/a/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1171&Itemid=248
*  Find Real Estate For Sale In Province Of Eastern Cape
... Find Property. South African Property. South African Property News. No Property for Sale in Province Of Eastern Cape Do you sell property in Province Of Eastern Cape. Map of Province Of Eastern Cape, South Africa. You can find property for sale in these nearby locations:. No nearby locations found We did not find any property locations near to Province Of Eastern Cape within approx.  Featured. View 152,739 Other - Port Elizabeth. View 242,358 Other - Port Elizabeth. 169 HECTARE PATENSIE FARM Patensie Eastern Cape farm for sale of 169 hectares Size Comprising one title, the property is approximately 169 ha in extent. APPROVED DEVELOPMENT LAND FOR RETIREMENT ESTATE APPROVED LIFESTYLE DEVELOPMENT IN QUEENSTOWN EASTERN CAPE FOR SALE 19HA AND 270 RETIREMENT UNITS COMPRISING OF 1 and 2 BEDROOM UNITS ALL EN-SUITE The Ideal Retiremen... View 12,572 Land - Port Elizabeth. View 1,353,956 Other - Port Elizabeth. Looking to buy property in Province Of Eastern Cape. Find Property for Me. Baths Any 1+ Bathroom...
https://propertyshowrooms.com/south-africa/property/ad-4564/province-of-eastern-cape.html
*  Neighborhood Alcohol & HIV Prevention in South African Townships (Philani) - Full Text View - Clinic
Neighborhood Alcohol HIV Prevention in South African Townships Philani - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov. Neighborhood Alcohol HIV Prevention in South African Townships Philani This study is ongoing, but not recruiting participants. Sponsor: University of California, Los Angeles Information provided by Responsible Party : Mary Jane Rotheram-Borus, University of California, Los Angeles. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00996528 First received: October 15, 2009 Last updated: June 8, 2015 Last verified: June 2015 History of Changes. The purpose of this study is to test a mother-to-mother intervention during pregnancy and after delivery with mothers in South Africa, most of whom are at risk delivering babies with fetal alcohol syndrome, babies that are underweight, or babies that are infected with HIV from an HIV-positive mother. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome HIV Nutrition Disorders. Official Title: Neighborhood Alcohol HIV Prevention in South African Townships Philani. Further study details as provided by Universi...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00996528?order=151
*  Neighborhood Alcohol & HIV Prevention in South African Townships (Philani) - Full Text View - Clinic
Neighborhood Alcohol HIV Prevention in South African Townships Philani - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov. Neighborhood Alcohol HIV Prevention in South African Townships Philani This study is ongoing, but not recruiting participants. Sponsor: University of California, Los Angeles Information provided by Responsible Party : Mary Jane Rotheram-Borus, University of California, Los Angeles. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00996528 First received: October 15, 2009 Last updated: June 8, 2015 Last verified: June 2015 History of Changes. The purpose of this study is to test a mother-to-mother intervention during pregnancy and after delivery with mothers in South Africa, most of whom are at risk delivering babies with fetal alcohol syndrome, babies that are underweight, or babies that are infected with HIV from an HIV-positive mother. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome HIV Nutrition Disorders. Official Title: Neighborhood Alcohol HIV Prevention in South African Townships Philani. Further study details as provided by Universi...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00996528?order=166
*  Plastics Manufacturing Jobs, vacancies in Paardeneiland, Western Cape | Indeed.co.za
Plastics Manufacturing Jobs, vacancies in Paardeneiland, Western Cape. Plastics Manufacturing jobs in Paardeneiland, Western Cape. Exact location only within 5 kilometers within 10 kilometers within 15 kilometers within 25 kilometers within 50 kilometers within 100 kilometers. - Cape Town, Western Cape. View all Cape Town, Western Cape jobs. Gumtree ZA - 3 days ago - save job - email - more... BRO Resourcing Pty Ltd - Cape Town, Western Cape. Good knowledge of current manufacturing processes. View all BRO Resourcing jobs - Cape Town jobs. Swift Momentum - City of Cape Town, Western Cape. 4 days ago - save job - email - more... View all Swift Momentum jobs - City of Cape Town, Western Cape jobs. JUNIOR INDUSTRIAL DESIGNER INDUSTRIAL DESIGNER - CAPE TOWN. - Cape Town, Western Cape. Good knowledge of current manufacturing processes. PNet Jobs - 5 days ago - save job - email - more... Junior Industrial Designer. - Cape Town, Western Cape. Good knowledge of current manufacturing processes. Fun and funky, leading S...
http://indeed.co.za/Plastics-Manufacturing-jobs-in-Paardeneiland,-Western-Cape
*  Ecca Group
... The 'Ecca Group' is a group of sedimentary geological formation s found in southern Africa. Description Karoo Supergroup stratigraphic sequence Ecca Group stratigraphy in the Eastern Cape Province See also References. The type area for the Ecca Group is in the Karoo Basin of South Africa and Lesotho. In the southwestern Karoo Basin, the Ecca Group has a total thickness of approximately 1300 m. G Stone, eds., Fine-Grained Turbidite System. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 72/SEPM Special Publication 68. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 72/SEPM Special Publication 68. Almost all of South Africa's coal resources and one-third of the coal resources in the Southern Hemisphere are in rocks of the Ecca Group. 1 Karoo Supergroup stratigraphic sequence. In the Eastern Cape Province the Karoo Basin fill commenced with the deposition of the Dwyka Group, followed by the Ecca Group, the Beaufort Group, the Molteno, Elliot, and Clarens Formation s and the igneous Drakensberg Group...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ecca_Group
*  Epidemiological Study of HIV in the South African National Defense Force - Full Text View - Clinical
... Trials.gov. Skip to Main Content. A service of the U.S. National Institutes of Health Example: "Heart attack" AND "Los Angeles" Search for studies:. Advanced Search. Help. Studies by Topic. Glossary. Find Studies. Basic Search. Advanced Search. See Studies by Topic. See Studies on Map. How to Search. How to Use Search Results. How to Find Results of Studies. How to Read a Study Record. About Clinical Studies. Learn About Clinical Studies. Other Sites About Clinical Studies. Glossary of Common Site Terms. Submit Studies. Why Should I Register and Submit Results. FDAAA 801 Requirements. How to Apply for an Account. How to Register Your Study. How to Edit Your Study Record. How to Submit Your Results. Frequently Asked Questions. Support Materials. Training Materials. Resources. Selected Publications. Clinical Alerts and Advisories. RSS Feeds. Trends, Charts, and Maps. Downloading Content for Analysis. About This Site. ClinicalTrials.gov Background. About the Results Database. History, Policies, and Laws. Med...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00341887?order=44
*  The South African National AIDS Council (SANAC) | Health Systems Trust
The South African National AIDS Council SANAC. Health Systems Trust. Recently Added Useful Links Tools: Planning for discontinuing NGO-clinic ART services and transferring to government facilities. The Mesothelioma Cancer Center. http://www.asbestos.com http://www.asbestos.com. Masters Degree Online. http://www.mastersdegreeonline.org/. PRICELESS SA. http://www.pricelesssa.ac.za/Pages/default.aspx. Education Index at PhDs.org. http://graduate-school.phds.org/education-index. 1 of 53 ››. HST the NHRD. There are currently 47 guests online. Search in:. All. News. Projects. Publications. Home About Us. Vision, Mission and Values Governance Our Structure Our Team Our History Annual Reports. Annual Financial Statements. Capability Statement Our Partners HST Employment. HST Projects. Current Projects Archived Projects The WEL Programme. Publications. South African Health Review. SAHR 2013/14 SAHR 2012/13 SAHR 2011 SAHR 2010 SAHR 2008 SAHR 2007 SAHR 2006 SAHR 2005 SAHR 2003/04 SAHR 2002 SAHR 2001 SAHR 2000 SAHR 1999 ...
http://hst.org.za/links/south-african-national-aids-council-sanac
*  List of municipalities in South Africa
... This is a list of municipalities of South Africa. The largest metropolitan area s are governed by metropolitan municipalities, while the rest of the country is divided into district municipalities, each of which consists of several local municipalities. Since the boundary reform at the time of the municipal election of 18 May 2011 there are eight metropolitan municipalities, 44 district municipalities and 226 local municipalities. 1 Metropolitan municipalities District municipalities Local municipalities By province References External links. Metropolitan municipalities. Name Code Province Seat Area km². Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality. Eastern Cape. East London, Eastern Cape. City of Cape Town Metropolitan Municipality. Western Cape. Cape Town. City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality. Gauteng. City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality. Gauteng. Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality. Gauteng. eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality. KwaZulu-Natal. Mangaung Metropolitan Municipality. Free State S...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_municipalities_in_South_Africa
*  .. Hot Prospects, Cold Facts: National Survey of South African Youth .. also of interest .. Topics
Facebook Twitter Email. Print. Home Polling Hot Prospects, Cold Facts: National Survey of South African Youth. Hot Prospects, Cold Facts: National Survey of South African Youth Feb 27, 2001. This report summarizes the key findings from the largest ever national survey of South African teenagers on their attitudes towards issues such as sex, gender, and substance abuse, as well as their aspirations for the future. This nationally representative random sample of 2,000 South Africans aged 12-17 years shows that young South Africans are overwhelmingly optimistic about the future of South Africa and filled with the usual aspirations and ambitions of youth. However, most young South Africans fear they might not live to realize their dreams and that South Africa’s future prospects may be overwhelmed by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The personal risk of HIV/AIDS, as well as it’s impact on friends, families and the country s future are a major preoccupation for young people. More than 40% of South Africans are under 15 years...
http://kff.org/global-health-policy/poll-finding/hot-prospects-cold-facts-national-survey-of/
*  Socio-cultural and behavioral determinants of condom use among youths in Limpopo Province, South Afr
... ica. Socio-cultural and behavioral determinants of condom use among youths in Limpopo Province, South Africa. Socio-cultural and behavioral determinants of condom use among youths in Limpopo Province, South Africa. Consistent condom use is central to the prevention of unwanted pregnancies, HIV and other STIs, yet young men and women alike are hesitant to use condoms because of threats to their relationships, cultural roles and at times economic survival. Purpose The purpose of this study is to identify socio-cultural and behavioral factors that influence condom use among youths in Limpopo province, South Africa. To conduct a secondary data analysis that examines the determinants of condom use, for men and women separately in relation to the following factors: Socio-demographic characteristics- age, education, marital status, migration and iv socio-economic status Sexual behavior characteristics- partnership type spousal, non spousal, or both, age at sexual...
http://wiredspace.wits.ac.za/handle/10539/5057
*  The Wedding, Party or Christmas Function Event Directory in Gauteng - Bramley - Johannesburg
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*  Northern Mirror And Glass Works (Pty) Ltd - Contact Us, Phone Number, Address and Map
Northern Mirror And Glass Works Pty Ltd - Contact Us, Phone Number, Address and Map. We use cookies to provide services to you. By continuing to use this website, we assume that you agree to our use of cookies. Custom Search. It's Free, List Your Business Help customers find you. Northern Mirror And Glass Works Pty Ltd Ownership, Incorrect Details or Privacy. Request a change. Share. . Work Group, Category Country Category. Glazing Contractors Work Group. Northern Mirror And Glass Works Pty Ltd. Telephone. 011 788-6508, 011 788-7139. Address MAP Street Address. 22 Sixth Ave Atholl Sandton 2196. Postal Address. Address. Box 81056 Parkhurst Sandton 2120. Profiles nearby Northern Mirror And Glass Works Pty Ltd. Northern Mirror And Glass Works Pty Ltd 0 km. Gauteng Educational Furniture Cc 0.13 km. Brodie Claire Fashions Cc 0.19 km. Espa Pty Ltd 0.4 km. Balfour Cellular Repairs 0.45 km. Nedbank - BALFOUR PARK 0.46 km. I D Technologies Pty Ltd 0.49 km. Ravan Press Pty Ltd 0.49 km. Ca-Ratings 0.5 km. Gandini Design...
http://callupcontact.com/b/business/Northern_Mirror_And_Glass_Works_Pty_Ltd/47199
*  .. Young South Africans, Broadcast Media, and HIV/AIDS Awareness: Results of a National Survey ..
facebook twitter email print home polling young south africans broadcast media and hiv aids awareness results of a national young south africans broadcast media and hiv aids awareness results of a national survey mar to better understand the attitudes of young south africans towards the media s role in hiv prevention and education the kaiser family foundation and the south africa broadcasting corporation conducted a survey of nearly south africans ages between august and december the purpose of the current study is to help inform the approach of the national public broadcasters and other broadcasters in south africa to hiv aids messaging and programming in the future as well as other principal actors in the field of hiv prevention in order to do this kaiser and the south african broadcasting corporation conducted a nationwide survey of young south africans including questions designed to gauge what media young people use and how often they use it assess the general attitudes of young people towards broadcast ...
http://kff.org/global-health-policy/poll-finding/young-south-africans-broadcast-media-and-hivaids/
*  Ritual-enema-induced colitis - Springer
... Search Help. Contact Us. Find out how to access preview-only content. Article. Ritual-enema-induced colitis. Affiliated with Department of Gastroenterology, Baragwanath Hospital South African Institute for Medical Research, Johannesburg General Hospital University of the Witwatersrand. Affiliated with Department of Gastroenterology, Baragwanath Hospital South African Institute for Medical Research, Johannesburg General Hospital University of the Witwatersrand. Hamilton. Affiliated with Department of Gastroenterology, Baragwanath Hospital South African Institute for Medical Research, Johannesburg General Hospital University of the Witwatersrand., Hugh H. Lawson. Affiliated with Department of Gastroenterology, Baragwanath Hospital South African Institute for Medical Research, Johannesburg General Hospital University of the Witwatersrand., Albert Solomon. Affiliated with Department of Gastroenterology, Baragwanath Hospital South African Institute for Medical Research, Johannesburg General Hospital Universit...
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF02586822
*  Orachrysops niobe
... 'Orachrysops niobe', or the 'Brenton Blue butterfly' is a species of butterfly in the Lycaenidae family. The larvae of the first two instars feed on the leaves and later instars on the rootstock of ' Indigofera erecta '. It was discovered in 1858 by Roland Trimen at Knysna in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. On some new species of South African butterflies. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London, 3 1 : 279-291 It was not seen again until 1977, when Dr Jonathan Ball of Cape Town found a population at Nature's Valley 50 km to the east of Knysna. South African Red Data Book: butterflies. South African National Scientific Programmes Report 158. Pretoria: Council for Scientific and Industrial Research This population died out during the 1980s but in 1991 Ernest Pringle of Bedford in the Eastern Cape Province located another colony at Brenton-on-Sea near Knysna. Endangered Wildlife Trust, Parkview, South Africa 105p This resulted in the procurement of the land on which the butterfly bree...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orachrysops_niobe
*  Districts of South Africa
... The nine provinces of South Africa are divided into 52 'districts', which are either metropolitan or district municipalities. They are the second level of administrative division, below the provinces and in the case of district municipalities above the local municipalities. South Africa's districts are analogous to counties in Great Britain and the United States. Types of district List Boundary alignment Controversy See also References Sources. Types of district. There are two types of municipality at the district level. The eight largest urban agglomerations are governed by metropolitan municipalities, which act as both local and district municipalities. The following map depicts the provinces and districts of South Africa. The district municipalities are labelled with numbers that correspond to their district code, while the metropolitan municipalities are labelled with letters that correspond to their names. Alfred Nzo District Municipality. Eastern Cape. Amajuba District Municipality. KwaZulu-Natal. ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Districts_of_South_Africa
*  Gauteng Wedding Workshop - Katy's Palace Bar
Gauteng Wedding Workshop - Katy s Palace Bar. Venues. Videography Venues. Venues. Wedding Dresses. Men's Wear Décor & Hiring. Flowers & Décor. Hiring Coordination. Coordination Hair & Make-up. Hair & Make-up Health & Beauty. Health & Beauty Stationery & Gifts. Invitations & Stationery. Catering. Cakes Entertainment. Accessories Legal. Wedding Websites Advertise Here. Gauteng Wedding Workshop Katy s Palace Bar. On the 28th February Katy s Palace Bar and Little Pink Book played host to a group of beautiful brides and their special guests attending the first wedding workshop for 2013. Nadia from Cut Out Design showed off some of her stunning laser cut invitations and wedding stationery. Olga from the The Wedding Box had a stunning display of dresses and spoiled every bride with a very special gift. Wedding Workshop at Katy s Palace Bar. Gauteng Wedding Workshop Katy s Palace Bar. Little Pink Book Wedding Workshop The Farm Inn Gauteng. Gauteng Wedding Workshop Arts on Main. Gauteng Wedding Workshop Shepstone Gard...
http://littlepinkbook.co.za/2013/03/gauteng-wedding-workshop-katys-palace-bar/
*  Plating in Western Cape
... Hub. Search. Add your business. Plating - Western Cape. 1 - 20 of 20 businesses results. If you need Plating or Electro Plating or even zinc plating in Western Cape, look no further. www.hotfrog.co.za showcases more than 20 Plating businesses across Western Cape. We do zinc plating and are situated in Paarl Western cape. 7 Sea Plating Pty Ltd Epping 1, Western Cape. 7 Sea Plating is an electroplating plant which specialises in all forms of Zinc plating, Electroless Ni, Aluminium anodising as well as Copper, Brass, Bright Nickel, Gold, Silver, Tin, Cadmium, Bronze and Chrome. Metal Polishing Electro Plating Electroplating Nickel. Pro Plating Paarl, Western Cape. Metal Polishing Electro Plating Electroplating Metal Finishing. Mco Plating Cape Town, Western Cape. Electroplating Nickel. NU-WORLD PLATING SERVICES Elsiesriver, Western Cape. we specialise in electro plating :copper,antique copper,nickle,satin nickle,antique nickle,black nickle,chrome,satin chrome,brass,antique brass,gold,silver,antique silver,e...
http://hotfrog.co.za/find/Plating/WC
*  Konidaris Hiring Services - all areas - Jozikids
... Home. About. Log In. Advertise. Competitions. Reviews. Deals. Newsletter. Blog. Kznkids. Contact. Holidays. parties. + costumes/mascots. Gauteng all areas. Johannesburg. Pretoria. East Rand. + Party Venues. + indoor. Johannesburg All areas. Johannesburg North. Johannesburg South. Midrand. Pretoria. East Rand. West Rand. Vaal. Johannesburg North. Johannesburg South. Johannesburg West. Johannesburg East. Midrand. Pretoria East. Pretoria North. Pretoria South. centurion. East Rand. West Rand. Vaal. Magaliesberg. North West Province. Hartebeespoort. + Party Themes. + Action. Gauteng all areas. johannesburg North. Johannesburg South. Midrand. Pretoria. East Rand. West Rand. + Animals. Gauteng all areas. Johannesburg. midrand. Pretoria. East Rand. West Rand. + Arts/crafts. Gauteng all areas. Johannesburg. East Rand. West Rand. Baby/toddler. + Baking /Cooking. Gauteng all areas. Johannesburg. Pretoria. East Rand. West Rand. Bear. Beauty. Cars. Circus. Dance/disco. + Disney. Gauteng all areas. Johannesburg. Pret...
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*  South African National Parks - SANParks - Official Website - Accommodation, Activities, Prices, Rese
SP-GK-0790/04 - Invitation for a suitable service provider to submit a bid for the supply and delivery of forklifts - Eco-Furniture Programme 1 October 2015. SP-GK-0773/13 - Invitation for a suitable service provider to submit a bid for the manufacture, supply and delivery of steel frames for primary and secondary school desks - Eco-Furniture Programme 1 October 2015. SP-GK-0773/12 - Invitation for a suitable service provider to submit a bid for the supply and delivery of two 2 finger jointing systems - Eco-Furniture Programme 1 October 2015. KNP-002-15 - Invitation for a suitable service provider to bid for the provision and maintenance of hygiene equipment in the Kruger National Park for a period of five 5 years 26 August 2015. KNP-003-15 - Invitation for a suitable service provider to bid for the provision of pest control services in the Kruger National Park for a period of five 5 years 25 August 2015. SP-GK-0773/9 - Invitation for suitable service providers for the supply and delivery of three 3 widebelt ...
http://tablem@sanparks.org/groups/tenders/
*  3 held in Eastern Cape drug bust | News24
3 held in Eastern Cape drug bust. News24. News24 News. Breaking News. Cape Town. More weather from Weather24 >. News. MyNews24. News. Rugby. News. Mobile. News. News. Women. News. Women. Focus. Good News. Johannesburg - Two men and a woman have been arrested on the road between Keiskammahoek and Port Elizabeth for possession of Mandrax, Eastern Cape police said on Thursday. narcotics NEXT ON NEWS24 X Western Cape ANC regional secretary shot 35 minutes ago. 24.com publishes all comments posted on articles provided that they adhere to our Comments Policy. Should you wish to report a comment for editorial review, please do so by clicking the 'Report Comment' button to the right of each comment. Rugby World Cup 2015 All the action from the 2015 RWC, including live coverage of all 48 matches, breaking news, fixtures, results, logs - and much more. Please Select a Region Gauteng KwaZulu-Natal Western Cape Free State Mpumalanga Eastern Cape Limpopo Northern Cape North West. Bellville 08:12 AM Road name: Voortrekker ...
http://news24.com/SouthAfrica/News/3-held-in-Eastern-Cape-drug-bust-20130808
*  List of stadiums in South Africa
... The following is a 'list of stadium s in South Africa ', ordered by capacity. Currently all stadiums with a capacity of 10,000 or more are included. Stadium Capacity City. Provinces of South Africa Province. Home team. 1 Soccer City. 94,736. Johannesburg. Gauteng. South Africa national football team, Kaizer Chiefs F.C. Kaizer Chiefs. 2 Ellis Park Stadium. 62,567. Johannesburg. Gauteng. Lions Super rugby franchise. Lions, Golden Lions. 3 Odi Stadium. 60,000. Mabopane. Gauteng. Garankuwa United. 4 Phakisa Freeway. 60,000. Welkom. Free State province. Free State. Motor Racing. 5 Mmabatho Stadium. 59,000. Mahikeng. North West. training ground for North-West University. 6 Cape Town Stadium. 55,000. Cape Town. Western Cape. Ajax Cape Town F.C. Ajax Cape Town. 7 Moses Mabhida Stadium. 54,000. Durban. KwaZulu-Natal. AmaZulu F.C. Amazulu. 8 Kings Park Stadium. 52,000. Durban. KwaZulu-Natal. Sharks rugby union. Sharks, Natal Sharks. 9 Loftus Versfeld Stadium. 51,762. Pretoria. Gauteng. Bulls rugby union. Bulls, Bl...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_stadiums_in_South_Africa
*  University of Limpopo Institutional Repository: School of Agriculture
... Browse. My DSpace. University of Limpopo Institutional Repository. School of Agriculture : Community home page. Growth, nodulation and yield response of promiscuous and non-promiscuous soybean cultivars to inoculation in different soil types under classhouse and field conditions. Farmers perspectives towards the rehabilitation and subsequent interventions by the LDA in the irrigation schemes in Sekhukhune District. Developing phytonematicides using indigenous cucumis africanus and cucumis myriocarpus fruits for tomato production systems. Price transmission in tomato markets of Limpopo Province, South Africa. Technical effeciency in maize production by small-scale farmers in Ga-Mothiba, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Estimating the supply response of maize in South Africa. Analyzing the technical and allocative efficiency of small-scale maize farmers in Tzaneen Municipality of Mopani District: a cobb-douglas and logistic regression approach. Effect of planting dates and cutting stages on the production o...
http://ul.netd.ac.za/jspui/handle/10386/48
*  Health, Illness, and Disease Beliefs in South African Context (Conference Presentation by Doris Bohm
Health, Illness, and Disease Beliefs in South African Context Conference Presentation by Doris Bohman, Sirkka-Liisa Ekman, Neltjie van Wyk - Electronic Research Archive @ Blekinge Institute of Technology BTH. About BTH. Education. Education. Welcome to BTH. Education. Find education. Life at BTH. Current student. Current students. Student Portal. It´s Learning - Learning platform. Apply for Ph. D studies. Collaboration. Collaboration. Collaboration with researchers. Student Collaboration. Commissioned education. Research News page About our research Documents By author By title By subject By type By department and title By department and author Search Search the archive Submitting How to Research Reports Submit now Log in Doctoral Licentiate Theses Research Publications BTH Code of Publishing BTH Dissertations Licentiates BTH Research Reports About Open Access Open Source Licensing Self archiving finding OA journals Funders OA mandates BTH OA policy Greyzone OA publishers Research Links Forskning.se Web of Sc...
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*  Terra Nova Chicken, Chicken Farms, Eastern Cape, ...043 730 7
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*  Water Management Areas
... 'Water Management Areas' WMAs are parts of South Africa that are managed by the Water Boards. Apart from these WMAs they also have a number of Water Drainage Areas some dams are only used for drainage, some seem to be used for both. List of Water Management Areas. Berg Water Management Area. around Cape Town, Western Cape. Breede Water Management Area. Breede Water Management Area. Crocodile West and Marico Water Management Area. Crocodile River West. Crocodile River and Marico River. Mostly North West South African province. Great Fish River, Kowie River, Boesmans River Eastern Cape. Groot River. Western part of Eastern Cape. Gouritz Water Management Area. Gouritz River, Olifants River, Western Cape. Olifants River, Kamanassie River, Gamka River, Buffels River Western Cape. Buffels River, Touws River river. Eastern part of Western Cape. Komati River and Crocodile River, Mpumalanga. Crocodile River. Limpopo Water Management Area. Limpopo River, Matlabas River, Mokolo River, Lephalala River, Mogalakwena R...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_Management_Areas
*  AFL South Africa
Key events for AFL South Africa are week-in week-out participation programs from 7 years to open age, mainly in primary and high schools, footyWILD Premier League competition contested by 8 clubs and other local competitions. The programs are in North West, Gauteng, Kwa Zulu Natal & Western Cape Provinces. footyWILD Premier League 'A national competition contested of Wild Cats FC, Platinum Buffaloes FC, Warriors FC, Super Owls FC, Hurricanes FC, Giant Bees FC, Nyanga Blue Birds FC and Real Divines FC '. footyWILD National Championships - Extreme 'An open age national competition contested by four provinces namely Gauteng, North West and Kwa Zulu Natal.' footyWILD National Championships - High 'An Under 17 national competition contested by four provinces namely Gauteng, North West and Kwa Zulu Natal.'. The 'Inland' senior and youth squads comprising players from Gauteng and North-West Province; meanwhile the 'Coastal' senior and youth squads are made up of players from Kwa-Zulu Natal and Western Cape Provinces...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AFL_South_Africa
*  North West (South African province)
North West South African province. North West South African province. "North West Province". 'North West' is a province of South Africa. Municipalities Cities and towns. It was the scene of political violence in Khutsong, Merafong City Local Municipality in 2006 and 2007, after cross-province municipalities were abolished and Merafong Municipality was transferred entirely to North West. North West borders the following districts of Botswana : Kgatleng – far northeast South-East – northeast Southern – north Kgalagadi – northwest Domestically, it borders the following provinces: Limpopo – northeast Gauteng – east Free State – southeast Northern Cape – southwest. The North West province has 4 district municipalities and 19 local municipalities, listed below. ' Bojanala Platinum District Municipality. Bojanala Platinum District Moretele Local Municipality. Madibeng Rustenburg Local Municipality. Rustenburg Kgetlengrivier Local Municipality. Dr Kenneth Kaunda District Ventersdorp Local Municipality. Ventersdorp ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_West_(South_African_province)
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*  PLOS ONE: Better Antiretroviral Therapy Outcomes at Primary Healthcare Facilities: An Evaluation of
... Three Tiers of ART Services in Four South African Provinces. Article-Level Metrics. View. Sum of PLOS and PubMed Central page views and downloads. Open Access Peer-reviewed Research Article. Better Antiretroviral Therapy Outcomes at Primary Healthcare Facilities: An Evaluation of Three Tiers of ART Services in Four South African Provinces. Better Antiretroviral Therapy Outcomes at Primary Healthcare Facilities: An Evaluation of Three Tiers of ART Services in Four South African Provinces Geoffrey Fatti, Ashraf Grimwood, Peter Bock. Published: September 21, 2010 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0012888. Article. Retention in care was 80.1% 95% CI: 79.3%–80.8%, 71.5% 95% CI: 69.1%–73.8% and 68.7% 95% CI: 67.0%–69.7% at PHC, district and regional hospitals respectively, after 24 months of treatment P 0.0001. Citation: Fatti G, Grimwood A, Bock P 2010 Better Antiretroviral Therapy Outcomes at Primary Healthcare Facilities: An Evaluation of Three Tiers of ART Services in Four South African Provinces. Mortality was hi...
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*  Mpumalanga Land Auctions. Plots, Development Land on Auction
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*  Heidelberg Residential Property Auctions. Heidelberg Reposessions & Liquidations
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*  Browsing by Author "Puoane, Thandi"
Hughes, Gail ; Puoane, Thandi ; Bradley, Hazel A. BACKGROUND: Diabetes constitutes a significant health problem in South Africa. Igumbor, Ehimario U. 'Big is beautiful' – an exploration with urban black community health workers in a South African township . OBJECTIVES: To explore perceptions about factors associated with body weight and body image among black female community health workers CHWs living and working in Khayelitsha, Cape Town. DESIGN: A descriptive, ... Challenges faced by the urban black South Africans in the prevention of non-communicable diseases . Chronic non-communicable diseases . Chronic pain in the community: A survey in a township in Mthatha, Eastern Cape, South Africa . Igumbor, Ehimario U. ; Puoane, Thandi ; Gansky, Stuart A. ; Plesh, Octavia Medpharm Publications, 2011. Determinants of obesity in an urban township of South Africa . Puoane, Thandi MedPharm Publications, 2008. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity, and identify factors associate...
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*  Subaru Impreza 2.0 R hatch Hatchback ( AWD ) cars for sale in Gauteng | R 89 900 | Auto Mart
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*  Western Cape Property. Property For Sale in the Western Cape, South Africa
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*  Recent South African Property Auction Sales from Cape Town to Joburg.
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*  Places close by Rose Avenue Doringkloof Centurion Pretoria Gauteng South Africa
We use cookies to provide services to you. By continuing to use this website, we assume that you agree to our use of cookies. Search Maps HOME It's Free, List Your Business Help customers find you Local, in my area and near by Rose Avenue Doringkloof Centurion Pretoria Gauteng South Africa Rose Avenue Doringkloof Centurion Pretoria Gauteng South Africa It is free, list your organisation here Events nearby Sartstart Distribution Agency Givaudan is the global leader in the fragrance and flavour industry, offering its products to global, regional and... 0.62km Rudys Tattoo And Piercing Studio 0.77km Plancom Services (Pty) Ltd 0.77km Superior Conference Management 0.97km A S T Group magaliesburg accommodation - kwa manzi self catering guest farm in magaliesburg magaliesberg mountains guest farm... 1.19km Avis - Centurion Cheap car hire and great car rental rates in South Africa with Avis Rent a Car. We also offer great long term car hire rates... Car Rental 1.2km M X Health 1.21km Poker At Home Poker At Home is a...
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*  Isipingo Hospital in Durban - Kwazulu-Natal - Contact Us, Phone Number, Address and Map
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*  Vlakfontein Mine, Nigel, Ekurhuleni District (East Rand), Witwatersrand field, Gauteng Province, Sou
Vlakfontein Mine, Nigel, Ekurhuleni District East Rand, Witwatersrand field, Gauteng Province, South Africa. Help mindat.org. Register. Language: English 中文. About Mindat Support Mindat Photos Messageboard Advanced Search More. Home Page Mindat News The Mindat Manual History of Mindat Copyright Status Management Team Contact Us Advertise on Mindat. Donate to Mindat Sponsor a Page Sponsored Pages Top Available Pages Mindat Advertisers Advertise on Mindat The Mindat Store. Minerals by Properties Minerals by Chemistry Random Mineral Search by minID Localities Near Me Search Glossary More Search Options. Search For: - Any - Mineral / Rock / Gem Locality Minerals in Region Photo Glossary Messageboard Articles Site Search. Locality Name:. The Mindat Manual Add a New Photo Rate Photos Locality Edit Report Add Glossary Item. Photo Search Photo Galleries New Photos Today New Photos Yesterday Members' Photo Galleries Past Photo of the Day Gallery. Vlakfontein Mine, Nigel, Ekurhuleni District East Rand, Witwatersrand fi...
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*  Bulletin of the World Health Organization - Antiretroviral therapy and early mortality in South Afri
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*  Urban Dictionary: south african arms
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*  SOUTH AFRICA. Cape Town
... Close. Editorial. Latest Stories. Archive Calendar. Books. Whereabouts. Themes. Photographers. Make a selection. Make a selection. Cultural. Touring Exhibitions. Print Sales. Commissions. Commercial. Portfolios. Commissions. Community. Blog. Events. Education. Store. Sign in / Register. Contact Us. About Us. Advanced Search. Back to collections by Mikhael Subotzky Mikhael Subotzky - SOUTH AFRICA. Cape Town. SOUTH AFRICA. Cape Town. 2005. Ex-prisoners Riaan and Armiena in their shack. SOUTH AFRICA. Cape Town. 2005. Ex-prisoners Riaan and Armiena in their shack. SOUTH AFRICA. Cape Town. 2005. Ex-prisoner, Tokkie with a portrait of his mother. SOUTH AFRICA. Cape Town. 2005. Ex-prisoner Tokkie smokes Tik Methamphetamine. SOUTH AFRICA. Cape Town. 2005. Ex-prisoner Ruka in his shebeen illegal drinking house. SOUTH AFRICA. Cape Town. 2005. Poachers carry crayfish nets. SOUTH AFRICA. Cape Town. 2005. A poacher prepares crayfish nets. SOUTH AFRICA. Cape Town. 2005. Ex-prisoner Mr Mad cleans the beach at Sea Point...
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MIM Pan-African Malaria Conference 2009HIV/AIDS in South African townships: South Africa’s HIV/AIDS epidemic, which is among the most severe in the world, is concentrated in its townships, where many black South Africans live due to the lingering effects of the Group Areas Act. A 2010 study revealed that HIV/AIDS infection in South Africa is distinctly divided along racial lines: 13.Paraffin Safety Association of Southern Africa: Paraffin Safety Association of Southern AfricaNatrocarbonatite: Natrocarbonatite is a rare carbonatite lava which erupts from the Ol Doinyo Lengai volcano in Tanzania within the East African Rift of eastern Africa.List of rivers in Western Sahara: This is a list of rivers in Western Sahara. This list is arranged north to south by drainage basin, with respective tributaries indented under each larger stream's name.Management of HIV/AIDS: The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection. There are several classes of antiretroviral agents that act on different stages of the HIV life-cycle.Roll Back Malaria Partnership: The Roll Back Malaria Partnership (RBM Partnership) is the global framework for coordinated action against malaria. It forges consensus among key actors in malaria control, harmonises action and mobilises resources to fight malaria in endemic countries.Transport in Guinea: The railway from Conakry to Kankan ceased operating in the mid-1980s. Domestic air services are intermittent.Miss Asia Pacific 2005Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Cameroon–China relations: China and Cameroon established bilateral relations on March 26, 1971. Cameroon is an adherent to the One China Policy.Health geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.Lucas paradox: In economics, the Lucas paradox or the Lucas puzzle is the observation that capital does not flow from developed countries to developing countries despite the fact that developing countries have lower levels of capital per worker.}}Kenya Pipeline CompanyMakerere University School of MedicineTimeline of historic inventionsList of countries that regulate the immigration of felons: This is a list of countries that regulate the immigration of felons.Federal institutions of Tanzania: This is a list of the federal institutions of Tanzania.Mineral industry of Benin: The mineral industry, which is limited to the production of cement, clay, gold, sand, and gravel, does not play a significant role in the Benin's economy.Omayra Bermúdez-Lugo.Health in Ghana: Health in Ghana includes the healthcare systems on prevention, care and treatment of diseases and other maladies.Rail transport in Burkina Faso: There are 622 kilometres of gauge railway in Burkina Faso which run from Kaya to the border with Côte d'Ivoire. As of June 2014 Sitarail operates a passenger train three times a week along the route from Ouagadougou to Abidjan.Phylogeography: Phylogeography is the study of the historical processes that may be responsible for the contemporary geographic distributions of individuals. This is accomplished by considering the geographic distribution of individuals in light of the patterns associated with a gene genealogy.Genetic variation: right|thumbWater supply and sanitation in the Palestinian territories: Water supply and sanitation in the Palestinian territories are characterized by severe water shortage and are highly influenced by the Israeli occupation. The water resources of Palestine are fully controlled by Israel and the division of groundwater is subject to provisions in the Oslo II Accord.Papa MaliCarte Jaune: The Carte Jaune or Yellow Card is an international certificate of vaccination (ICV). It is issued by the World Health Organisation.Karonga District: right|115px|Location of Karonga District in MalawiRiver Gambia National ParkPugo and Togo: Pugo and Togo were a Filipino comedy team in Philippine movies during the 1940s up to the 1950s.Pugo, movie-industry.List of birds of Ivory Coast: This is a list of the bird species recorded in Ivory Coast. The avifauna of Ivory Coast include a total of 758 species, of which one has been introduced by humans and nineteen are rare or accidental.Zimbabwe Congress of Trade Unions: The Zimbabwe Congress of Trade Unions is the primary trade union federation in Zimbabwe. The general secretary of ZCTU is Wellington Chibebe and the president is Lovemore Matombo.Utiaritichthys: Utiaritichthys is a genus of serrasalmid found in the Amazon and Orinoco basins in tropical South America.Hinduism in Zambia: Zambia is home to 25,000 Hindus.as reported by Hinduism Today, 2003 Hinduism is the third largest religion in Zambia.Mining in Gabon: Gabon was the richest of the former French Equatorial African colonies in known mineral deposits. In addition to oil, which accounted for 80% of the country’s exports in 2004, Gabon was a world leader in manganese.Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections: The Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) is an annual scientific meeting devoted to the understanding, prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS and the opportunistic infections associated with AIDS. Thousands of leading researchers and clinicians from around the world convene in a different location in North America each year for the Conference.Nippleus Erectus: Nippleus Erectus was a drummer of GWAR (played by former White Cross member Rob Mosby), who did all the drumming for Hell-O. He is also credited for the drums on Scumdogs of the Universe, though it was Jizmak Da Gusha who played them.Health in Niger: Public Health in Niger suffers from a chronic lack of resources and a small number of health providers relative to population. Some medicines are in short supply or unavailable.Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research: 140px|rightLarge ornamented Ediacaran microfossil: Large ornamented Ediacaran microfossils (LOEMs) are microscopic acritarchs, usually over 100 μm in diameter, which are common in sediments of the Ediacaran period, . They largely disappear from the Ediacaran fossil record before , roughly coeval with the origin of the Ediacara biota.Computational archaeology: Computational archaeology describes computer-based analytical methods for the study of long-term human behaviour and behavioural evolution. As with other sub-disciplines that have prefixed 'computational' to their name (e.Drug Resource Enhancement against Aids and Malnutrition: DREAM (short for "Drug Resources Enhancement against Aids and Malnutrition", formerly "Drug Resource Enhancement against AIDS in Mozambique") is an AIDS therapy program promoted by the Christian Community of Sant'Egidio. It is designed to give access to free ARV treatment with generic HAART drugs to the poor in Africa on a large scale: So far, 5,000 people are receiving ARV treatment, especially in Mozambique, but the program is being built up also in other countries: Malawi, Guinea, Tanzania and others.Panmixia: Panmixia (or panmixis) means random mating.King C and Stanfield W.Makonde language: millionDNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).National Outbreak Reporting System: ==The National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS)==Nigerian Ports Authority: The Nigerian Ports Authority (NPA) is a federal government agency that governs and operates the ports of Nigeria. The major ports controlled by the NPA include: the Lagos Port Complex and Tin Can Island Port in Lagos; Calabar Port, Delta Port, Rivers Port at Port Harcourt, and Onne Port.Brazzaville Zoo: The Brazzaville Zoo is a zoo located in Brazzaville, Republic of the Congo. It has been in existence since at least 1944, as this is the most widely accepted date of assembly.The Rain Rain Rain Came Down Down Down: "The Rain Rain Rain Came Down Down Down" is a narrative song from the Walt Disney musical film featurette, Winnie the Pooh and the Blustery Day. The song is also incorporated into the 1977 musical film The Many Adventures of Winnie the Pooh which is an amalgamation of three Winnie-the-Pooh featurettes including "Blustery Day".Zimbabweans in BotswanaList of birds of Guinea-Bissau: This is a list of the bird species recorded in Guinea-Bissau. The avifauna of Guinea-Bissau include a total of 470 species, of which one is rare or accidental.Anopheles culicifacies: Anopheles culicifacies (sensu lato) is one of the major vectors of malaria on the Indian Subcontinent. It has been reported to be a species complex consisting of five sibling species which have been provisionally designated as species A, B, C, D, and E.Theodor Bilharz Research Institute: The Theodor Bilharz Research Institute is located in Giza, Egypt.Chad (disambiguation): Chad is an African country.Pregnancy-associated malaria: Pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) or placental malaria is a presentation of the common illness that is particularly life-threatening to both mother and developing fetus. PAM is caused primarily by infection with Plasmodium falciparum, the most dangerous of the four species of malaria-causing parasites that infect humans.Index of Sierra Leone-related articles: Articles (arranged alphabetically) related to Sierra Leone include:Namibia–Russia relations: Namibia–Russia relations refers to the bilateral relationship between Namibia and Russia. Namibia has an embassy in Moscow and Russia has an embassy in Windhoek.Musbury Valley: The Musbury Valley is a small valley in the east Pennines, west of Helmshore and Haslingden in Rossendale, Lancashire. The valley is very picturesque and includes a variety of landscapes, mostly sheep pasture and moors but there are some patches of beautiful woodland here and there.Negroid: Negroid (also known as Congoid) is a term that is used by forensic and physical anthropologists to refer to individuals and populations that share certain morphological and skeletal traits that are frequent among most populations in Sub-Saharan Africa. The term is commonly associated with notions of racial typology, which are disputed by many anthropologists.International Network of Prison Ministries: The International Network of Prison Ministries (INPM) is a Dallas, Texas based crime prevention and rehabilitation trans-national organization. INPM functions through a website that serves as a clearinghouse for information about various Christian prison ministries.Religion in the Central African Republic: According to 2010 estimates, about 80 percent of the population of the Central African Republic are Christians. Islam is practiced by 15 percent of the population.Adult-onset immunodeficiency syndrome: Adult-onset immunodeficiency syndrome is a provisional name for a newly diagnosed immunodeficiency illness. The name is proposed in the first public study to identify the syndrome.GA²LENIntact America: Intact America is a registered non-governmental Intactivist (pro-intact or anti-infant circumcision) organization created in 2008 to advance the view that the circumcision of non-consenting minors is unethical and medically unnecessary, and therefore should be abandoned. They also claim that circumcision reduces sexual sensation in males and that it is a violation of modern bio-ethical standards to forcibly remove erogenous tissue from children.Insecticide: An insecticide is a substance used to kill insects. They include ovicides and larvicides used against insect eggs and larvae, respectively.Coles PhillipsAustrian colonization of Nicobar Islands: Austrian colonization of Nicobar Islands was a short-lived and unsuccessful attempt of Habsburg Monarchy to make Nicobar Islands (an island chain in the eastern Indian Ocean) their colony. The colony was established in 1778.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Proportional reporting ratio: The proportional reporting ratio (PRR) is a statistic that is used to summarize the extent to which a particular adverse event is reported for individuals taking a specific drug, compared to the frequency at which the same adverse event is reported for patients taking some other drug (or who are taking any drug in a specified class of drugs). The PRR will typically be calculated using a surveillance database in which reports of adverse events from a variety of drugs are recorded.Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.European Immunization Week: European Immunization Week (EIW) is an annual regional initiative, coordinated by the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe (WHO/Europe), to promote immunization against vaccine-preventable diseases. EIW activities are carried out by participating WHO/Europe member states.Matrix population models: Population models are used in population ecology to model the dynamics of wildlife or human populations. Matrix population models are a specific type of population model that uses matrix algebra.Tuberculosis managementWater Agriculture and Health in Tropical Area: Water Agriculture and Health in Tropical Area (French, Eau Agriculture Et Sante Et Milieu Tropical (E.A.Incidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.Haplogroup L0 (mtDNA)HIV-positive people: HIV-positive people are people who have the human immunodeficiency virus HIV, the agent of the currently incurable disease AIDS.

(1/2725) Novel endotheliotropic herpesviruses fatal for Asian and African elephants.

A highly fatal hemorrhagic disease has been identified in 10 young Asian and African elephants at North American zoos. In the affected animals there was ultrastructural evidence for herpesvirus-like particles in endothelial cells of the heart, liver, and tongue. Consensus primer polymerase chain reaction combined with sequencing yielded molecular evidence that confirmed the presence of two novel but related herpesviruses associated with the disease, one in Asian elephants and another in African elephants. Otherwise healthy African elephants with external herpetic lesions yielded herpesvirus sequences identical to that found in Asian elephants with endothelial disease. This finding suggests that the Asian elephant deaths were caused by cross-species infection with a herpesvirus that is naturally latent in, but normally not lethal to, African elephants. A reciprocal relationship may exist for the African elephant disease.  (+info)

(2/2725) Short course antiretroviral regimens to reduce maternal transmission of HIV.

 (+info)

(3/2725) Obstetric and neonatal outcome following chronic hypertension in pregnancy among different ethnic groups.

We retrospectively studied pre-eclampsia rate and obstetric outcome in a cohort of 436 pregnancies amongst 318 women of different ethnic backgrounds attending an antenatal hypertension clinic from 1980-1997, identifying 152 women (213 pregnancies) with chronic essential hypertension. The ethnic breakdown was: White, 64 (30.0%) pregnancies in 48 (31.5%) women; Black/Afro-Caribbean, 79 (37.1%) pregnancies in 56 (36.8%) women; and Indo-Asians, 70 (32.3%) pregnancies in 48 (31.6%) women. The prevalences of pre-eclampsia in White, Black and Indo-Asian women were 17.2%, 12.7% and 18.6%, respectively (p = 0.58). Pregnancies of Indo-Asian women were of shorter gestation, and babies in this group also had lower birth weight and ponderal index compared to those of White and Black women (all p < 0.05). The proportions of overall perinatal mortality were 1.6% for Whites (1/64), 3.8% for Blacks (3/79) and 10.0% for Indo-Asians (7/70), suggesting increased risk in the Indo-Asian group. Indo-Asian women with chronic essential hypertension need careful antenatal care and observation during pregnancy.  (+info)

(4/2725) Candidate parasitic diseases.

This paper discusses five parasitic diseases: American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease), dracunculiasis, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis and schistosomiasis. The available technology and health infrastructures in developing countries permit the eradication of dracunculiasis and the elimination of lymphatic filariasis due to Wuchereria bancrofti. Blindness due to onchocerciasis and transmission of this disease will be prevented in eleven West African countries; transmission of Chagas disease will be interrupted. A well-coordinated international effort is required to ensure that scarce resources are not wasted, efforts are not duplicated, and planned national programmes are well supported.  (+info)

(5/2725) Relative influences of sex, race, environment, and HIV infection on body composition in adults.

BACKGROUND: The factors that control body composition in disease are uncertain. OBJECTIVE: We planned to compare the relative influences of HIV infection, sex, race, and environment on body composition. METHODS: We analyzed results of body composition studies performed by bioelectrical impedance analysis in 1415 adults from 2 cohorts: white and African American men and women from the United States, and African men and women (279 HIV-infected and 1136 control). The effects of sex and HIV infection on weight, body cell mass, and fat-free mass were analyzed by using both unadjusted and age-, weight-, and height-adjusted data. RESULTS: Control men weighed more and had more body cell mass and fat-free mass than did control women, although control women had more fat. The strongest correlates with body composition were height and weight, followed by sex. HIV infection, age, environment, and race. Control men and women weighed more and had more body cell mass, fat-free mass, and fat than did HIV-infected men. However, differences in body composition between HIV-infected and control groups were strongly influenced by sex. Of the differences in weight between HIV-infected and uninfected subjects, fat-free mass accounted for 51% in men but only 18% in women, in whom the remainder was fat. Sex effects were similar in African and American groups. CONCLUSIONS: Sex has a marked effect on the changes in body composition during HIV infection, with women losing disproportionately more fat than men. Sex-related differences in body composition were narrower in the HIV-infected groups. Race and environment had smaller effects than sex and HIV infection.  (+info)

(6/2725) X chromosome evidence for ancient human histories.

Diverse African and non-African samples of the X-linked PDHA1 (pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 alpha subunit) locus revealed a fixed DNA sequence difference between the two sample groups. The age of onset of population subdivision appears to be about 200 thousand years ago. This predates the earliest modern human fossils, suggesting the transformation to modern humans occurred in a subdivided population. The base of the PDHA1 gene tree is relatively ancient, with an estimated age of 1.86 million years, a late Pliocene time associated with early species of Homo. PDHA1 revealed very low variation among non-Africans, but in other respects the data are consistent with reports from other X-linked and autosomal haplotype data sets. Like these other genes, but in conflict with microsatellite and mitochondrial data, PDHA1 does not show evidence of human population expansion.  (+info)

(7/2725) Geographic distribution and evolution of Sindbis virus in Australia.

The molecular epidemiology and evolution of Sindbis (SIN) virus in Australia was examined. Several SIN virus strains isolated from other countries were also included in the analysis. Two regions of the virus genome were sequenced including a 418 bp region of the E2 gene and a 484 bp region containing part of the junction region and the 5' end of the C gene. Analysis of the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence data from 40 SIN virus isolates clearly separated the Paleoarctic/Ethiopian and Oriental/Australian genetic types of SIN virus. Examination of the Australian strains showed a temporal rather than geographic relationship. This is consistent with the virus having migratory birds as the major vertebrate host, as it allows for movement of virus over vast areas of the continent over a relatively short period of time. The results suggest that the virus is being periodically redistributed over the continent from an enzootic focus of evolving SIN virus. However, SIN virus strains isolated from mosquitoes collected in the south-west of Australia appear to represent a new SIN virus lineage, which is distinct from the Paleoarctic/Ethiopian and Oriental/Australian lineages. Given the widespread geographic dispersal of the Paleoarctic/Ethiopian and Oriental/Australian lineages, it is surprising that the South-west genetic type is so restricted in its area of circulation. Nucleotide sequence data from the C gene of the prototype strain of the alphavirus Whataroa were also determined. This virus was found to be genetically distinct from the SIN virus isolates included in the present study; however, it is clearly SIN-like and appears to have evolved from a SIN-like ancestral virus.  (+info)

(8/2725) Reforming the health sector in developing countries: the central role of policy analysis.

Policy analysis is an established discipline in the industrialized world, yet its application to developing countries has been limited. The health sector in particular appears to have been neglected. This is surprising because there is a well recognized crisis in health systems, and prescriptions abound of what health policy reforms countries should introduce. However, little attention has been paid to how countries should carry out reforms, much less who is likely to favour or resist such policies. This paper argues that much health policy wrongly focuses attention on the content of reform, and neglects the actors involved in policy reform (at the international, national sub-national levels), the processes contingent on developing and implementing change and the context within which policy is developed. Focus on policy content diverts attention from understanding the processes which explain why desired policy outcomes fail to emerge. The paper is organized in 4 sections. The first sets the scene, demonstrating how the shift from consensus to conflict in health policy established the need for a greater emphasis on policy analysis. The second section explores what is meant by policy analysis. The third investigates what other disciplines have written that help to develop a framework of analysis. And the final section suggests how policy analysis can be used not only to analyze the policy process, but also to plan.  (+info)


How has Malaria effected the net growth in Africa over the last 50 years?


How has Malaria effected the net growth in Africa over the last 50 years?
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Probably not too much because malaria is easily treated.  Many people in africa take anti-malarials when they develop fever.


What are some of the more popular nonalcoholic drinks in Africa?


Hello,

It doesn't matter from which country. I am familiar with the malt beverages in West Africa. But. I would like to learn more about the popular drinks in different countries over there. Also snacks as well if you know of any.

Thanks a bunch!
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In Ghana, people drink lots of different things: Coke, Fanta, Mirinda, Sprite.  (No one really drinks diet sodas) and then there are warmer drinks like sweet milky tea, normally taken with bread.  We drink ice-cold purified water from sachets throughout the day.  There's also a popular drink, the name of which I can't remember right now.  It's jokingly called Ghana Coca-Cola.  Made from maize and a deep brown in colour, (hence the nickname) it's not gaseous.  The milk from coconuts which are opened for you right in front of you on the street.  Snacks...  Do we have snacks?  Haha.  The most popular snacks are quick ones you buy beside the road as you're travelling.  Slices of papaw (papaya) in a bag.  Pineapple.  Oranges.  Roasted corn (sold with a little bit of very ripe and hard salted coconut (called kubeh).  Roasted plantains (sold with roasted groundnuts).  Little ripe bananas.  (The most delicious in the world.)  Plantain chips. (My auntie makes a popular brand of these for sale throughout Ghana).  Then there are meat pies and rock buns, both of which you can buy from Fan-Ice sellers, the ice-cream monopoly in most of West Africa which form another popular group of snacks.  The main Fan-Ice flavours in Ghana are Vanilla (It tastes like milkshake but it is good), Chocolate (too icy and not so popular) and FanYogo which is strawberry frozen yoghurt and curiously the most popular by far.  I went to Togo and they had loads of different flavours!  There are so many other snacks in Ghana, I hope I'm not boring you.  There's kelewele, which is spicy fried cubes of plantain, often served with spicy fried nuts.  There's tsitsinga, a delicious beef/goat kebab.  Bofrot, which is a fried sweet batter in ball shapes and koose, which is similar but not sweet, not round and made with beans.  So I guess not very similar at all.  There's peanut brittle and kaklo (a spicy banana/plantain and ginger fritter).  Sorry, I didn't want to go on for so long but once I had started, I couldn't leave the main things out.  I'm so proud of all our food.  Also, I'm insanely hungry now.  Thanks a lot for that.  ;)


What is the Problem People have with Madonna and Angelina Jolie Adopting children in Africa?


I live in Africa and know that some children would be better off with celebrities in the USA than over here. Every day in Africa 34 000 children die. That is equivalent to 500 bus loads of children, every day. 

Why then do people refer to people like Angelina Jolie and Madonna in such a negative manner? What has happened to applauding a good thing? Please enlighten me because maybe I am just confused.
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I don't have a problem with people who adopt a child through following the rules of adoption from that country. Madonna wanted a heap of exemptions because she donated money. That sets a precedence in inter-country adoptions that's most adoptive parents even find unacceptable. Gosh even my own husband who doesn't give a rip about celebrities even had a few words to say about Madonna on this one, and they weren't good.

 Angelina did live in Africa for a at least 2yrs. She followed the protocol at least. She worked in orphanges so I can see how she became an adoptive parent that way.

We all want these kids to have a chance at life, but at what cost to them? If they can stay in Africa and be sponsored than I'm all for that. If they can't  then lets make sure the right thing is done by the child and its truly in their best interests NO Exceptions no matter how much money a person has in the bank. Inter-country adoption needs to be treated with more respect than she has done.


How many of you feel we the united states should help out more in Africa, like medical attention.?


Africa has the highest rate of HIV/AIDS infections in the world. Now i need yalls oppion on this, tell me if you feel we should help out more or not. (please dont write a novel i just need a paragraph maybe)
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'idol gives back' raised 60 million dollars and part of it is going to africa.

my school built a school in africa.

lots of places/people do things that help them
but of course, we could always help out more.

we have it so good here. we need to help those who don't.


Donating blood if travel to E and W Africa and had yellow fever vaccine in the last 2 years?


So I want to donate blood before I get a tattoo on Friday, if possible, because I know you have to wait a year from that point.  The problem is:
I returned from E and W Africa about 3 months ago...
I have had the Yellow Fever vaccine within the last 2 years 

Does anyone know the official rules regarding these 2 facts?  It would be great to know.  Thanks!
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You should be fine as far as the yellow fever vaccine is concered, but I would ask about the fact that you traveled to Africa.  Did you get any malaria shots before traveling there?  If so, you can't donate within a year of getting the shot.  I would call up a local blood bank and ask.


Why it is that Africa cannot be food self-sufficient? How long can we keep importing basic food commodities?


As African governments strive to kick-back poverty, but still the issue of food sufficiency is not taking into seriously. Africa has the land and the environment to grow agricultural product. The west coast of Africa has favorable climate and the source of rivers to generate standard irrigation facilities to adopt mass food production.
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One of the reasons is that a lot of african countries have been screwed by the first world countries.  They are in so much debt that whatever they produce is used to pay off the money "given" to them by other countries or financial institutions.  

Perhaps the biggest reason is that the people in power are relentlessly trying to suck everything out of the ground for themselves.  The best example is that of the zimbabwean president, Robert Mugabe.  The Zimbabwean dollar is at around 100 000 to 1 US Dollar.  Its one of the few if not only place in the world where a millionaire is poor.  Ameal at a restaurant will cost a bill with at least 5 zeros on it.  All the desperation and yet when Mugabe travels, he has a convoy of 60 Mercedes SUVs.

So until Something happens to these fat cats in power, and someone else takes over who actually wants to help people, africa will never prosper.


Did the popular hair style afro start in America or Africa?


Teacher said America but i think it started in africa
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You do know that black's natural hair forms an afro shape, right? So, in reality it's not a hairstyle at all, it's just the way our hair grows. I have an afro, but that's just because I don't spend time putting it into a hairstyle like a ponytail or braids or anything, I just leave it alone and it's a natural afro. If you say it starts somewhere then maybe africa that's the center of the black population. I don't really get this question and it seems silly to me. How can the way your hair naturally grows "start" somewhere? This isn't a trend where we put stuff in our hair to make it into an afro. Your teacher sounds like a spazz. Ask her, in a regular conversation, what's the difference between afro the hair style and the way black people's hair naturally grows - afro.


How can America help the AIDS epidemic going on in Africa without always just giving money?


soooo.... i ave to do this persuasive essay for school and im choosing the side that America should help africa with the aids problem but every site i go onto it says america is currently giving money but i believe that wee should so more than just gaive money so what can we do? 
and please write if u support my opinion and not reasons u think we shouldnt support africa cause thats not my topic... thnx♥
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The US is giving more money for research for a cure. Research is not cheap. It costs billions of dollars. I think that the US should give some sort of education to the people in African countries like giving info about HIV. Furthermore, maybe giving out more condoms and health care services. Some countries in Africa doesn't have many health care services so they can't get tested and such.