Allied Health Occupations: Occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians, and are qualified by special training and, frequently, by licensure to work in supporting roles in the health care field. These occupations include, but are not limited to, medical technology, physical therapy, physician assistant, etc.Schools, Health Occupations: Schools which offer training in the area of health.Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.Occupations: Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.Students, Health Occupations: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program in the health occupations.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.Students, Dental: Individuals enrolled a school of dentistry or a formal educational program in leading to a degree in dentistry.Students, Pharmacy: Individuals enrolled in a school of pharmacy or a formal educational program leading to a degree in pharmacy.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Education, Medical, Undergraduate: The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Health: The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Education, Dental: Use for articles concerning dental education in general.Student Health Services: Health services for college and university students usually provided by the educational institution.Education, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Education, Pharmacy: Formal instruction, learning, or training in the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of drugs in the field of medicine.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Problem-Based Learning: Instructional use of examples or cases to teach using problem-solving skills and critical thinking.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.Career Choice: Selection of a type of occupation or profession.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Clinical Clerkship: Undergraduate education programs for second- , third- , and fourth-year students in health sciences in which the students receive clinical training and experience in teaching hospitals or affiliated health centers.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Schools, Medical: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Delivery of Health Care, Integrated: A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Health Literacy: Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Faculty: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in an educational institution.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Community Health Planning: Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)Schools: Educational institutions.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.School Health Services: Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Models, Educational: Theoretical models which propose methods of learning or teaching as a basis or adjunct to changes in attitude or behavior. These educational interventions are usually applied in the fields of health and patient education but are not restricted to patient care.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Great BritainRisk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Accidents, Occupational: Unforeseen occurrences, especially injuries in the course of work-related activities.Regional Health Planning: Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Agricultural Workers' Diseases: Diseases in persons engaged in cultivating and tilling soil, growing plants, harvesting crops, raising livestock, or otherwise engaged in husbandry and farming. The diseases are not restricted to farmers in the sense of those who perform conventional farm chores: the heading applies also to those engaged in the individual activities named above, as in those only gathering harvest or in those only dusting crops.Community Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Schools, Dental: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of dentistry.Students, Premedical: Individuals enrolled in a preparatory course for medical school.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Women, Working: Women who are engaged in gainful activities usually outside the home.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Education, Graduate: Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.Preceptorship: Practical experience in medical and health-related services that occurs as part of an educational program wherein the professionally-trained student works outside the academic environment under the supervision of an established professional in the particular field.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Student Dropouts: Individuals who leave school, secondary or college, prior to completion of specified curriculum requirements.Preventive Health Services: Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Educational Technology: Systematic identification, development, organization, or utilization of educational resources and the management of these processes. It is occasionally used also in a more limited sense to describe the use of equipment-oriented techniques or audiovisual aids in educational settings. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, December 1993, p132)Reproductive Health: The physical condition of human reproductive systems.BrazilOdds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Biology: One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.SwedenTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Public Health Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.Occupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.School Admission Criteria: Requirements for the selection of students for admission to academic institutions.Electronic Health Records: Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.IndiaSex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.EnglandEducation: Acquisition of knowledge as a result of instruction in a formal course of study.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Workplace: Place or physical location of work or employment.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Health Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Self-Assessment: Appraisal of one's own personal qualities or traits.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Achievement: Success in bringing an effort to the desired end; the degree or level of success attained in some specified area (esp. scholastic) or in general.Anatomy: A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)United StatesChina: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Dentist-Patient Relations: The psychological relations between the dentist and patient.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Patient Simulation: The use of persons coached to feign symptoms or conditions of real diseases in a life-like manner in order to teach or evaluate medical personnel.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Mentors: Senior professionals who provide guidance, direction and support to those persons desirous of improvement in academic positions, administrative positions or other career development situations.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Croatia: Created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Peer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.Health Services, Indigenous: Health care provided to specific cultural or tribal peoples which incorporates local customs, beliefs, and taboos.Allied Health Personnel: Health care workers specially trained and licensed to assist and support the work of health professionals. Often used synonymously with paramedical personnel, the term generally refers to all health care workers who perform tasks which must otherwise be performed by a physician or other health professional.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.National Institutes of Health (U.S.): An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.FinlandEnvironmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.Schools, Public Health: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of public health.Health Services for the Aged: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.International Educational Exchange: The exchange of students or professional personnel between countries done under the auspices of an organization for the purpose of further education.Education, Veterinary: Use for general articles concerning veterinary medical education.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Faculty, Medical: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.Catchment Area (Health): A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.Education, Nursing: Use for general articles concerning nursing education.Public Health Informatics: The systematic application of information and computer sciences to public health practice, research, and learning.Health Plan Implementation: Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.Health Services Administration: The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.Adolescent Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to adolescents, ages ranging from 13 through 18 years.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Local Government: Smallest political subdivisions within a country at which general governmental functions are carried-out.Competency-Based Education: Educational programs designed to ensure that students attain prespecified levels of competence in a given field or training activity. Emphasis is on achievement or specified objectives.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Construction Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of building.TurkeyPaternal Exposure: Exposure of the male parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring.Urban Health Services: Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.