South AmericaNorth AmericaCentral AmericaSouth Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Americas: The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.Latin America: The geographic area of Latin America in general and when the specific country or countries are not indicated. It usually includes Central America, South America, Mexico, and the islands of the Caribbean.ArgentinaIndians, South American: Individual members of South American ethnic groups with historic ancestral origins in Asia.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Guyana: A republic in the north of South America, east of VENEZUELA and west of SURINAME. Its capital is Georgetown.ColombiaGeography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)ChilePhylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)ParaguayIndians, Central American: Individual members of Central American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia. Mexican Indians are not included.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.PeruAfricaAsia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)BrazilGenetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.VenezuelaCaribbean Region: The area that lies between continental North and South America and comprises the Caribbean Sea, the West Indies, and the adjacent mainland regions of southern Mexico, Central America, Colombia, and Venezuela.UruguayEcuadorSequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.South CarolinaBoliviaFrench Guiana: A French overseas department on the northeast coast of South America. Its capital is Cayenne. It was first settled by the French in 1604. Early development was hindered because of the presence of a penal colony. The name of the country and the capital are variants of Guyana, possibly from the native Indian Guarani guai (born) + ana (kin), implying a united and interrelated race of people. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p418 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p195)Oceania: The islands of the central and South Pacific, including Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia, and traditionally Australasia. (Random House Dictionary, 2d ed)Radiometric Dating: Techniques used to determine the age of materials, based on the content and half-lives of the RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES they contain.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Sloths: Slow-moving exclusively arboreal mammals that inhabit the tropical forests of South and Central America.PanamaEmigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Paleodontology: The study of the teeth of early forms of life through fossil remains.Siberia: A region, north-central Asia, largely in Russia. It extends from the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean and from the Arctic Ocean to central Kazakhstan and the borders of China and Mongolia.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.BelizeYellow Fever: An acute infectious disease primarily of the tropics, caused by a virus and transmitted to man by mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Haemagogus. The severe form is characterized by fever, HEMOLYTIC JAUNDICE, and renal damage.Triatoma: A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Several species are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.South Australia: A state in south central Australia. Its capital is Adelaide. It was probably first visited by F. Thyssen in 1627. Later discoveries in 1802 and 1830 opened up the southern part. It became a British province in 1836 with this self-descriptive name and became a state in 1901. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1135)Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Animal Distribution: A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.Chagas Disease: Infection with the protozoan parasite TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, a form of TRYPANOSOMIASIS endemic in Central and South America. It is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY; and dysfunction of the ESOPHAGUS or COLON.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Drosera: A plant genus of the family Droseraceae, order Nepenthales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida, that contains naphthoquinone glucosides. The name sundew is rarely used for PYROLA.EuropeNew South Wales: A state in southeastern Australia. Its capital is Sydney. It was discovered by Captain Cook in 1770 and first settled at Botany Bay by marines and convicts in 1788. It was named by Captain Cook who thought its coastline resembled that of South Wales. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p840 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p377)Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Archaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Dinosaurs: General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Asia, Southeastern: The geographical area of Asia comprising BORNEO; BRUNEI; CAMBODIA; INDONESIA; LAOS; MALAYSIA; the MEKONG VALLEY; MYANMAR (formerly Burma), the PHILIPPINES; SINGAPORE; THAILAND; and VIETNAM.Cestoda: A subclass of segmented worms comprising the tapeworms.Geological Processes: Events and activities of the Earth and its structures.MexicoXenarthra: An order of New World mammals characterized by the absence of incisors and canines from among their teeth, and comprising the ARMADILLOS, the SLOTHS, and the anteaters. The order is distinguished from all others by what are known as xenarthrous vertebrae (xenos, strange; arthron, joint): there are secondary, and sometimes even more, articulations between the vertebrae of the lumbar series. The order was formerly called Edentata. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed; Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, vol. I, p515)Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Tracheobionta: A subset of various vascular plants (also known as the Tracheophyta) which include seed-bearing and non seed-bearing species.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Yellow fever virus: The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.Trypanosoma cruzi: The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Myiasis: The invasion of living tissues of man and other mammals by dipterous larvae.Coccidioidomycosis: Infection with a fungus of the genus COCCIDIOIDES, endemic to the SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES. It is sometimes called valley fever but should not be confused with RIFT VALLEY FEVER. Infection is caused by inhalation of airborne, fungal particles known as arthroconidia, a form of FUNGAL SPORES. A primary form is an acute, benign, self-limited respiratory infection. A secondary form is a virulent, severe, chronic, progressive granulomatous disease with systemic involvement. It can be detected by use of COCCIDIOIDIN.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.South DakotaGene Pool: The total genetic information possessed by the reproductive members of a POPULATION of sexually reproducing organisms.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Sigmodontinae: A subfamily of the family MURIDAE comprised of 69 genera. New World mice and rats are included in this subfamily.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Genetic Speciation: The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Introduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.Falkland Islands: A British colony in the Atlantic Islands, comprising two principal islands, East Falkland and West Falkland. Its capital is Stanley. Discovered in 1592, it was not occupied until the French settled there briefly in 1764. Later the English settled there but were expelled by the Spanish in 1770. The Falklands were claimed by Argentina but were occupied in 1833 by the British who, after an April 1982 invasion by Argentina, regained them in June. The islands were named by British Captain John Strong in 1690 for the fifth Viscount Falkland who financed Strong's expedition. The Spanish name for the islands, Malvinas, is from the French Malouins, inhabitants of St. Malo who attempted to colonize the islands in 1764. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p389 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p182)Geological Phenomena: The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Mimosa: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that contains kukulkanin, a CHALCONE.Paleopathology: The study of disease in prehistoric times as revealed in bones, mummies, and archaeologic artifacts.Cytochromes b: Cytochromes of the b group that have alpha-band absorption of 563-564 nm. They occur as subunits in MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III.Suriname: A republic in the north of South America, bordered on the west by GUYANA (British Guiana) and on the east by FRENCH GUIANA. Its capital is Paramaribo. It was formerly called Netherlands Guiana or Dutch Guiana or Surinam. Suriname was first settled by the English in 1651 but was ceded to the Dutch by treaty in 1667. It became an autonomous territory under the Dutch crown in 1954 and gained independence in 1975. The country was named for the Surinam River but the meaning of that name is uncertain. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1167 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p526)Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome: Acute respiratory illness in humans caused by the Muerto Canyon virus whose primary rodent reservoir is the deer mouse Peromyscus maniculatus. First identified in the southwestern United States, this syndrome is characterized most commonly by fever, myalgias, headache, cough, and rapid respiratory failure.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.GuatemalaWorld Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.DNA, Protozoan: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Rodentia: A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.Encephalitis Virus, Eastern Equine: A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing encephalomyelitis in Equidae and humans. The virus ranges along the Atlantic seaboard of the United States and Canada and as far south as the Caribbean, Mexico, and parts of Central and South America. Infections in horses show a mortality of up to 90 percent and in humans as high as 80 percent in epidemics.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.Herpesvirus 5, Bovine: A species of VARICELLOVIRUS that causes a fatal MENINGOENCEPHALITIS in calves.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Pacific Islands: The islands of the Pacific Ocean divided into MICRONESIA; MELANESIA; and POLYNESIA (including NEW ZEALAND). The collective name Oceania includes the aforenamed islands, adding AUSTRALIA; NEW ZEALAND; and the Malay Archipelago (INDONESIA). (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p910, 880)Europe, EasternHantavirus: A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE causing HANTAVIRUS INFECTIONS, first identified during the Korean war. Infection is found primarily in rodents and humans. Transmission does not appear to involve arthropods. HANTAAN VIRUS is the type species.Marsupialia: An infraclass of MAMMALS, also called Metatheria, where the young are born at an early stage of development and continue to develop in a pouch (marsupium). In contrast to Eutheria (placentals), marsupials have an incomplete PLACENTA.Communicable Diseases, Emerging: Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Trichechus inunguis: Member of the genus Trichechus found in the Amazon and Orinoco drainages of northeastern South America. (From Scott, Concise Encyclopedia Biology, 1996)Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Simuliidae: Several species of the genus Simulium (family Simuliidae) that act as intermediate hosts (vectors) for the parasitic disease ONCHOCERCIASIS.Ilex paraguariensis: A plant species of the family AQUIFOLIACEAE. An infusion of the leaves is commonly drunk in South America for stimulating effect in much the same manner as coffee is in other cultures.Tooth: One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Linguistics: The science of language, including phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and historical linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Geology: The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Encephalitis Virus, Venezuelan Equine: A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines. It is seen most commonly in parts of Central and South America.Trichechus manatus: Member of the genus Trichechus inhabiting the coast and coastal rivers of the southeastern United States as well as the West Indies and the adjacent mainland from Vera Cruz, Mexico to northern South America. (From Scott, Concise Encyclopedia Biology, 1996)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Alphavirus: A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.Anopheles: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.United StatesCatfishes: Common name of the order Siluriformes. This order contains many families and over 2,000 species, including venomous species. Heteropneustes and Plotosus genera have dangerous stings and are aggressive. Most species are passive stingers.Africa South of the Sahara: All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).Yellow Fever Vaccine: Vaccine used to prevent YELLOW FEVER. It consists of a live attenuated 17D strain of the YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)