Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Pyrethrins: The active insecticidal constituent of CHRYSANTHEMUM CINERARIIFOLIUM flowers. Pyrethrin I is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemummonocarboxylic acid and pyrethrin II is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemumdicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.DDT: A polychlorinated pesticide that is resistant to destruction by light and oxidation. Its unusual stability has resulted in difficulties in residue removal from water, soil, and foodstuffs. This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen: Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Mosquito Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.Malathion: A wide spectrum aliphatic organophosphate insecticide widely used for both domestic and commercial agricultural purposes.Anopheles: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.Anopheles gambiae: A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.Dieldrin: An organochlorine insecticide whose use has been cancelled or suspended in the United States. It has been used to control locusts, tropical disease vectors, in termite control by direct soil injection, and non-food seed and plant treatment. (From HSDB)Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Chlorpyrifos: An organothiophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide and as an acaricide.Fenitrothion: An organothiophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide.Houseflies: Flies of the species Musca domestica (family MUSCIDAE), which infest human habitations throughout the world and often act as carriers of pathogenic organisms.Nitro Compounds: Compounds having the nitro group, -NO2, attached to carbon. When attached to nitrogen they are nitramines and attached to oxygen they are NITRATES.Pesticide Synergists: Chemicals that, while not possessing inherent pesticidal activity, nonetheless promote or enhance the effectiveness of other pesticides when combined.Culex: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.Bedding and Linens: Articles of cloth, usually cotton or rayon and other synthetic or cotton-blend fabrics, used in households, hospitals, physicians' examining rooms, nursing homes, etc., for sheets, pillow cases, toweling, gowns, drapes, and the like.Propoxur: A carbamate insecticide.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Piperonyl Butoxide: An insecticide synergist, especially for pyrethroids and ROTENONE.Diazinon: A cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an organothiophosphorus insecticide.Pesticide Residues: Pesticides or their breakdown products remaining in the environment following their normal use or accidental contamination.Nitriles: Organic compounds containing the -CN radical. The concept is distinguished from CYANIDES, which denotes inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE.Carbamates: Derivatives of carbamic acid, H2NC(=O)OH. Included under this heading are N-substituted and O-substituted carbamic acids. In general carbamate esters are referred to as urethanes, and polymers that include repeating units of carbamate are referred to as POLYURETHANES. Note however that polyurethanes are derived from the polymerization of ISOCYANATES and the singular term URETHANE refers to the ethyl ester of carbamic acid.Organothiophosphorus Compounds: Compounds containing carbon-phosphorus bonds in which the phosphorus component is also bonded to one or more sulfur atoms. Many of these compounds function as CHOLINERGIC AGENTS and as INSECTICIDES.Pesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.Fumigation: The application of smoke, vapor, or gas for the purpose of disinfecting or destroying pests or microorganisms.Azinphosmethyl: An organothiophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor. It has been used as an acaricide and as an insecticide.Insecticide-Treated Bednets: Lightweight meshwork fabric made of cotton, silk, polyester, nylon (polyamides), or other material impregnated with insecticide, having openings too small to allow entry of mosquitoes or other insects, thereby offering protection against insect bite and insect-borne diseases.Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Organophosphorus Compounds: Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.Chlordan: A highly poisonous organochlorine insecticide. The EPA has cancelled registrations of pesticides containing this compound with the exception of its use through subsurface ground insertion for termite control and the dipping of roots or tops of non-food plants. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Carbaryl: A carbamate insecticide and parasiticide. It is a potent anticholinesterase agent belonging to the carbamate group of reversible cholinesterase inhibitors. It has a particularly low toxicity from dermal absorption and is used for control of head lice in some countries.Endosulfan: A polychlorinated compound used for controlling a variety of insects. It is practically water-insoluble, but readily adheres to clay particles and persists in soil and water for several years. Its mode of action involves repetitive nerve-discharges positively correlated to increase in temperature. This compound is extremely toxic to most fish. (From Comp Biochem Physiol (C) 1993 Jul;105(3):347-61)Fenthion: Potent cholinesterase inhibitor used as an insecticide and acaricide.Pest Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous plants, insects, or other animals. This includes control of plants that serve as habitats or food sources for animal pests.Lethal Dose 50: The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.Methomyl: A carbamate insecticide with anticholinesterase activity.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Triatoma: A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Several species are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.Lindane: An organochlorine insecticide that has been used as a pediculicide and a scabicide. It has been shown to cause cancer.Organophosphate Poisoning: Poisoning due to exposure to ORGANOPHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS, such as ORGANOPHOSPHATES; ORGANOTHIOPHOSPHATES; and ORGANOTHIOPHOSPHONATES.Aedes: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.Bedbugs: Bugs of the family CIMICIDAE, genus Cimex. They are flattened, oval, reddish insects which inhabit houses, wallpaper, furniture, and beds. C. lectularius, of temperate regions, is the common bedbug that attacks humans and is frequently a serious pest in houses, hotels, barracks, and other living quarters. Experiments have shown that bedbugs can transmit a variety of diseases, but they are not normal vectors under natural conditions. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p272)Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Organophosphates: Carbon-containing phosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have CARBON atoms bound to one or more OXYGEN atoms of the P(=O)(O)3 structure. Note that several specific classes of endogenous phosphorus-containing compounds such as NUCLEOTIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and PHOSPHOPROTEINS are listed elsewhere.Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Carbofuran: A cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as a systemic insecticide, an acaricide, and nematocide. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Benin: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER and between TOGO and NIGERIA. Its capital is Porto-Novo. It was formerly called Dahomey. In the 17th century it was a kingdom in the southern area of Africa. Coastal footholds were established by the French who deposed the ruler by 1892. It was made a French colony in 1894 and gained independence in 1960. Benin comes from the name of the indigenous inhabitants, the Bini, now more closely linked with southern Nigeria (Benin City, a town there). Bini may be related to the Arabic bani, sons. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p136, 310 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p60)Insect Repellents: Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.Dichlorvos: An organophosphorus insecticide that inhibits ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE.Cholinesterase Inhibitors: Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.Pralidoxime Compounds: Various salts of a quaternary ammonium oxime that reconstitute inactivated acetylcholinesterase, especially at the neuromuscular junction, and may cause neuromuscular blockade. They are used as antidotes to organophosphorus poisoning as chlorides, iodides, methanesulfonates (mesylates), or other salts.Temefos: An organothiophosphate insecticide.Phenylcarbamates: Phenyl esters of carbamic acid or of N-substituted carbamic acids. Structures are similar to PHENYLUREA COMPOUNDS with a carbamate in place of the urea.CholinesterasesParathion: A highly toxic cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an acaricide and as an insecticide.Methyl Parathion: The methyl homolog of parathion. An effective, but highly toxic, organothiophosphate insecticide and cholinesterase inhibitor.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Paraoxon: An organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as a pesticide.Organothiophosphates: Carbon-containing thiophosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either SULFUR atom, or the OXYGEN atom of the SPO3 core structure.Agrochemicals: Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.Dimethoate: An organothiophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as a systemic and contact insecticide.Housing: Living facilities for humans.EsterasesCarboxylesterase: Carboxylesterase is a serine-dependent esterase with wide substrate specificity. The enzyme is involved in the detoxification of XENOBIOTICS and the activation of ester and of amide PRODRUGS.SemicarbazonesMetabolic Detoxication, Drug: Reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action. It includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.Aphids: A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.Hemiptera: A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Equatorial Guinea: A republic in central Africa, bordering the Bay of Biafra, CAMEROON is to the north and GABON to the south. Its capital is Malabo.Cockroaches: Insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, BLATTELLIDAE, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach PERIPLANETA americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Martinique: An island in the Lesser Antilles, one of the Windward Islands. Its capital is Fort-de-France. It was discovered by Columbus in 1502 and from its settlement in 1635 by the French it passed into and out of Dutch and British hands. It was made a French overseas department in 1946. One account of the name tells of native women on the shore calling "Madinina" as Columbus approached the island. The meaning was never discovered but was entered on early charts as Martinique, influenced by the name of St. Martin. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p734 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p339)Allethrin: Synthetic analogs of the naturally occurring insecticides cinerin, jasmolin, and pyrethrin. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Heptachlor: A man-made compound previously used to control termites and other insects. Even though production of heptachlor was phased out of use in the United States during the late 1980's it remains in soil and hazardous waste sites. It is clearly toxic to animals and humans but, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined that heptachlor is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. (From ATSDR Public Heath Statement, April 1989)Mosquito Nets: Free-standing or supported lightweight meshwork fabric made of cotton, silk, polyester or other material, having openings too small to allow entry of mosquitoes or other insects, thereby protecting against INSECT BITES; INSECT STINGS, and insect-borne diseases.Aldrin: A highly poisonous substance that was formerly used as an insecticide. The manufacture and use has been discontinued in the U.S. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Agricultural Workers' Diseases: Diseases in persons engaged in cultivating and tilling soil, growing plants, harvesting crops, raising livestock, or otherwise engaged in husbandry and farming. The diseases are not restricted to farmers in the sense of those who perform conventional farm chores: the heading applies also to those engaged in the individual activities named above, as in those only gathering harvest or in those only dusting crops.Mekong Valley: The geographic area of the Mekong Valley in general or when the specific country or countries are not indicated. Usually includes Cambodia, Indochina, and Laos.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Poisoning: A condition or physical state produced by the ingestion, injection, inhalation of or exposure to a deleterious agent.Diptera: An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).Moths: Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.Beauveria: A mitosporic fungal genus. Teleomorphs are found in the family Clavicipitaceae and include Cordyceps bassiana. The species Beauveria bassiana is a common pathogen of ARTHROPODS and is used in PEST CONTROL.Chlordecone: A highly chlorinated polycyclic hydrocarbon insecticide whose large number of chlorine atoms makes it resistant to degradation. It has been shown to be toxic to mammals and causes abnormal cellular changes in laboratory animals.Trichlorfon: An organochlorophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide for the control of flies and roaches. It is also used in anthelmintic compositions for animals. (From Merck, 11th ed)Nymph: The immature stage in the life cycle of those orders of insects characterized by gradual metamorphosis, in which the young resemble the imago in general form of body, including compound eyes and external wings; also the 8-legged stage of mites and ticks that follows the first moult.Diflubenzuron: An insect growth regulator which interferes with the formation of the insect cuticle. It is effective in the control of mosquitoes and flies.Pediculus: Lice of the genus Pediculus, family Pediculidae. Pediculus humanus corporus is the human body louse and Pediculus humanus capitis is the human head louse.Ectoparasitic Infestations: Infestations by PARASITES which live on, or burrow into, the surface of their host's EPIDERMIS. Most ectoparasites are ARTHROPODS.Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium: A plant species of the genus CHRYSANTHEMUM, family ASTERACEAE. The flowers contain PYRETHRINS, cinerolones, and chrysanthemines which are powerful contact insecticides. Most in the old Pyrethrum genus are reclassified to TANACETUM; some to other ASTERACEAE genera.Lepidoptera: A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.Entomology: A discipline or occupation concerned with the study of INSECTS, including the biology and the control of insects.ArgentinaIvermectin: A mixture of mostly avermectin H2B1a (RN 71827-03-7) with some avermectin H2B1b (RN 70209-81-3), which are macrolides from STREPTOMYCES avermitilis. It binds glutamate-gated chloride channel to cause increased permeability and hyperpolarization of nerve and muscle cells. It also interacts with other CHLORIDE CHANNELS. It is a broad spectrum antiparasitic that is active against microfilariae of ONCHOCERCA VOLVULUS but not the adult form.Weevils: BEETLES in the family Curculionidae and the largest family in the order COLEOPTERA. They have a markedly convex shape and many are considered pests.Methoprene: Juvenile hormone analog and insect growth regulator used to control insects by disrupting metamorphosis. Has been effective in controlling mosquito larvae.Gossypium: A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. It is the source of COTTON FIBER; COTTONSEED OIL, which is used for cooking, and GOSSYPOL. The economically important cotton crop is a major user of agricultural PESTICIDES.Limonins: A group of degraded TRITERPENES in which the four terminal carbons of the C17 side chain have been removed, and the remaining portion often forming C17 furans.Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated: Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.Phosphoramides: Amide derivatives of phosphoric acid such as compounds that include the phosphoric triamide (P(=O)(N)(N)(N)) structure.Periplaneta: A genus in the family Blattidae containing several species, the most common being P. americana, the American cockroach.Chad: A republic in central Africa, east of NIGER, west of SUDAN and south of LIBYA. Its capital is N'Djamena.Bacillus thuringiensis: A species of gram-positive bacteria which may be pathogenic for certain insects. It is used for the biological control of the Gypsy moth.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Muscidae: A family of the order DIPTERA with over 700 species. Important species that may be mechanical vectors of disease include Musca domesticus (HOUSEFLIES), Musca autumnalis (face fly), Stomoxys calcitrans (stable fly), Haematobia irritans (horn fly) and Fannia spp.Sri LankaAcaricides: A pesticide or chemical agent that kills mites and ticks. This is a large class that includes carbamates, formamides, organochlorines, organophosphates, etc, that act as antibiotics or growth regulators.Insect Bites and Stings: Bites and stings inflicted by insects.Euglenozoa Infections: Infections with the protozoa of the phylum EUGLENOZOA.Tetranychidae: Family of spider MITES, in the superfamily Tetranychoidea, suborder Trombidiformes.ToluidinesEnvironmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.DEET: A compound used as a topical insect repellent that may cause irritation to eyes and mucous membranes, but not to the skin.Chagas Disease: Infection with the protozoan parasite TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, a form of TRYPANOSOMIASIS endemic in Central and South America. It is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY; and dysfunction of the ESOPHAGUS or COLON.Metarhizium: A mitosporic fungal genus in the family Clavicipitaceae. It has teleomorphs in the family Nectriaceae. Metarhizium anisopliae is used in PESTICIDES.Herbicides: Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.Amphipoda: An order of mostly marine CRUSTACEA containing more than 5500 species in over 100 families. Like ISOPODA, the other large order in the superorder Peracarida, members are shrimp-like in appearance, have sessile compound eyes, and no carapace. But unlike Isopoda, they possess thoracic gills and their bodies are laterally compressed.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.BoliviaPhlebotomus: A genus of PSYCHODIDAE which functions as the vector of a number of pathogenic organisms, including LEISHMANIA DONOVANI; LEISHMANIA TROPICA; Bartonella bacilliformis, and the Pappataci fever virus (SANDFLY FEVER NAPLES VIRUS).Oviparity: The capability of producing eggs (OVA) from which young are hatched outside the body. While mostly referring to nonmammalian species, this does include MAMMALS of the order MONOTREMATA.Coumaphos: A organothiophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an anthelmintic, insecticide, and as a nematocide.Cimicidae: A family of wingless, blood-sucking insects of the suborder HETEROPTERA, including the bedbugs and related forms. Cimex (BEDBUGS), Heamatosiphon, and Oeciacus are medically important genera. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Endrin: An organochlorine compound that was formerly used as an insecticide. Its manufacture and use has been discontinued in the United States. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Cameroon: A republic in central Africa lying east of CHAD and the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and west of NIGERIA. The capital is Yaounde.Aldicarb: Carbamate derivative used as an insecticide, acaricide, and nematocide.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Blattellidae: A family of insects in the order Dictyoptera (COCKROACHES), including genera Blattella, Parcoblatta, and Symploce.Oxazines: Six-membered heterocycles containing an oxygen and a nitrogen.Burkina Faso: A republic in western Africa, south and east of MALI and west of NIGER. Its capital is Ouagadougou. It was formerly called Upper Volta until 1984.Scalp DermatosesOccupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Biological Control Agents: Organisms, biological agents, or biologically-derived agents used strategically for their positive or adverse effect on the physiology and/or reproductive health of other organisms.Mozambique: A republic in southern Africa, south of TANZANIA, east of ZAMBIA and ZIMBABWE, bordered on the west by the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Maputo. It was formerly called Portuguese East Africa.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Anabasine: A piperidine botanical insecticide.Phosmet: An organothiophosphorus insecticide that has been used to control pig mange.