Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Dental Care: The total of dental diagnostic, preventive, and restorative services provided to meet the needs of a patient (from Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982).Education, Dental: Use for articles concerning dental education in general.Schools, Dental: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of dentistry.Students, Dental: Individuals enrolled a school of dentistry or a formal educational program in leading to a degree in dentistry.Dental Caries: Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Health Education, Dental: Education which increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of dental health on a personal or community basis.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Dental Care for Chronically Ill: Dental care for patients with chronic diseases. These diseases include chronic cardiovascular, endocrinologic, hematologic, immunologic, neoplastic, and renal diseases. The concept does not include dental care for the mentally or physically disabled which is DENTAL CARE FOR DISABLED.Dental Clinics: Facilities where dental care is provided to patients.Dental Care for Children: The giving of attention to the special dental needs of children, including the prevention of tooth diseases and instruction in dental hygiene and dental health. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Dental Hygienists: Persons trained in an accredited school or dental college and licensed by the state in which they reside to provide dental prophylaxis under the direction of a licensed dentist.Faculty, Dental: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a dental school.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Education, Medical, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform physicians of recent advances in their field.Dental Health Services: Services designed to promote, maintain, or restore dental health.Dental Pulp: A richly vascularized and innervated connective tissue of mesodermal origin, contained in the central cavity of a tooth and delimited by the dentin, and having formative, nutritive, sensory, and protective functions. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Education, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Education, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform individuals of recent advances in their particular field of interest. They do not lead to any formal advanced standing.Dental Care for Disabled: Dental care for the emotionally, mentally, or physically disabled patient. It does not include dental care for the chronically ill ( = DENTAL CARE FOR CHRONICALLY ILL).Education: Acquisition of knowledge as a result of instruction in a formal course of study.Area Health Education Centers: Education centers authorized by the Comprehensive Health Manpower Training Act, 1971, for the training of health personnel in areas where health needs are the greatest. May be used for centers other than those established by the United States act.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Education, Dental, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform dentists of recent advances in their fields.Insurance, Dental: Insurance providing coverage for dental care.Dental Anxiety: Abnormal fear or dread of visiting the dentist for preventive care or therapy and unwarranted anxiety over dental procedures.Dental Research: The study of laws, theories, and hypotheses through a systematic examination of pertinent facts and their interpretation in the field of dentistry. (From Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982, p674)Dental Auxiliaries: Personnel whose work is prescribed and supervised by the dentist.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Dental Care for Aged: The giving of attention to the special dental needs of the elderly for proper maintenance or treatment. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Education, Nursing: Use for general articles concerning nursing education.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Health: The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Sex Education: Education which increases the knowledge of the functional, structural, and behavioral aspects of human reproduction.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Education, Public Health Professional: Education and training in PUBLIC HEALTH for the practice of the profession.Dental Arch: The curve formed by the row of TEETH in their normal position in the JAW. The inferior dental arch is formed by the mandibular teeth, and the superior dental arch by the maxillary teeth.Education, Professional: Formal education and training in preparation for the practice of a profession.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Dental Plaque: A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Dental Records: Data collected during dental examination for the purpose of study, diagnosis, or treatment planning.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.School Health Services: Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Education, Dental, Graduate: Educational programs for dental graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic dental sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced dental degree.Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.General Practice, Dental: Nonspecialized dental practice which is concerned with providing primary and continuing dental care.Dental Offices: The room or rooms in which the dentist and dental staff provide care. Offices include all rooms in the dentist's office suite.Education, Distance: Education via communication media (correspondence, radio, television, computer networks) with little or no in-person face-to-face contact between students and teachers. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1997)Dental Staff: Personnel who provide dental service to patients in an organized facility, institution or agency.Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Dental Equipment: The nonexpendable items used by the dentist or dental staff in the performance of professional duties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p106)Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Teaching Materials: Instructional materials used in teaching.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Dental Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to dental or oral health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Dental Assistants: Individuals who assist the dentist or the dental hygienist.Dental Amalgam: An alloy used in restorative dentistry that contains mercury, silver, tin, copper, and possibly zinc.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Models, Educational: Theoretical models which propose methods of learning or teaching as a basis or adjunct to changes in attitude or behavior. These educational interventions are usually applied in the fields of health and patient education but are not restricted to patient care.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Societies, Dental: Societies whose membership is limited to dentists.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.United StatesAnesthesia, Dental: A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Education, Graduate: Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Technology, Dental: The field of dentistry involved in procedures for designing and constructing dental appliances. It includes also the application of any technology to the field of dentistry.Ethics, Dental: The principles of proper professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the dentist, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the dentist in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Health Literacy: Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Dentists: Individuals licensed to practice DENTISTRY.Dental Implants: Biocompatible materials placed into (endosseous) or onto (subperiosteal) the jawbone to support a crown, bridge, or artificial tooth, or to stabilize a diseased tooth.Education, Medical, Undergraduate: The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.Radiography, Dental: Radiographic techniques used in dentistry.Oral Hygiene: The practice of personal hygiene of the mouth. It includes the maintenance of oral cleanliness, tissue tone, and general preservation of oral health.Schools, Health Occupations: Schools which offer training in the area of health.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Schools: Educational institutions.Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Competency-Based Education: Educational programs designed to ensure that students attain prespecified levels of competence in a given field or training activity. Emphasis is on achievement or specified objectives.Dental Service, Hospital: Hospital department providing dental care.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Education, Medical, Graduate: Educational programs for medical graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic medical sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced medical degree.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Licensure, Dental: The granting of a license to practice dentistry.Dental Models: Presentation devices used for patient education and technique training in dentistry.Laboratories, Dental: Facilities for the performance of services related to dental treatment but not done directly in the patient's mouth.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Credentialing: The recognition of professional or technical competence through registration, certification, licensure, admission to association membership, the award of a diploma or degree, etc.Specialties, Dental: Various branches of dental practice limited to specialized areas.Faculty: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in an educational institution.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.Public Health Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Fluorosis, Dental: A chronic endemic form of hypoplasia of the dental enamel caused by drinking water with a high fluorine content during the time of tooth formation, and characterized by defective calcification that gives a white chalky appearance to the enamel, which gradually undergoes brown discoloration. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)Dentistry: The profession concerned with the teeth, oral cavity, and associated structures, and the diagnosis and treatment of their diseases including prevention and the restoration of defective and missing tissue.Preventive Health Services: Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.Delivery of Health Care, Integrated: A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)Preventive Dentistry: The branch of dentistry concerned with the prevention of disease and the maintenance and promotion of oral health.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Fees, Dental: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for dental services.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Dental Materials: Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Dental Technicians: Individuals responsible for fabrication of dental appliances.Practice Management, Dental: The organization and operation of the business aspects of a dental practice.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Allied Health Personnel: Health care workers specially trained and licensed to assist and support the work of health professionals. Often used synonymously with paramedical personnel, the term generally refers to all health care workers who perform tasks which must otherwise be performed by a physician or other health professional.IndiaHistory, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Hygiene: The science dealing with the establishment and maintenance of health in the individual and the group. It includes the conditions and practices conducive to health. (Webster, 3d ed)Schools, Public Health: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of public health.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Community Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.Dentist-Patient Relations: The psychological relations between the dentist and patient.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Comprehensive Dental Care: Providing for the full range of dental health services for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, and rehabilitation of patients.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Dental Sac: Dense fibrous layer formed from mesodermal tissue that surrounds the epithelial enamel organ. The cells eventually migrate to the external surface of the newly formed root dentin and give rise to the cementoblasts that deposit cementum on the developing root, fibroblasts of the developing periodontal ligament, and osteoblasts of the developing alveolar bone.Occupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.Pediatric Dentistry: The practice of dentistry concerned with the dental problems of children, proper maintenance, and treatment. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Tooth DiseasesSmoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Education, Special: Education of the individual who markedly deviates intellectually, physically, socially, or emotionally from those considered to be normal, thus requiring special instruction.Health Educators: Professionals who plan, organize and direct health education programs for the individual, groups and the community.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Education, Nursing, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform nurses of recent advances in their fields.Community Health Planning: Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)Medically Underserved Area: A geographic location which has insufficient health resources (manpower and/or facilities) to meet the medical needs of the resident population.BrazilAfrican Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Great BritainComputer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Pamphlets: Printed publications usually having a format with no binding and no cover and having fewer than some set number of pages. They are often devoted to a single subject.Esthetics, Dental: Skills, techniques, standards, and principles used to improve the art and symmetry of the teeth and face to improve the appearance as well as the function of the teeth, mouth, and face. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p108)Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Nutritional Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease.Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.Health Fairs: Community health education events focused on prevention of disease and promotion of health through audiovisual exhibits.Professional Role: The expected function of a member of a particular profession.Health Plan Implementation: Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Audiovisual Aids: Auditory and visual instructional materials.Self Care: Performance of activities or tasks traditionally performed by professional health care providers. The concept includes care of oneself or one's family and friends.Community Dentistry: The practice of dentistry concerned with preventive as well as diagnostic and treatment programs in a circumscribed population.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Students, Health Occupations: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program in the health occupations.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.School Dentistry: Preventive dental services provided for students in primary and secondary schools.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.DMF Index: "Decayed, missing and filled teeth," a routinely used statistical concept in dentistry.Regional Health Planning: Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.Women's Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Tooth: One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Infection Control, Dental: Efforts to prevent and control the spread of infections within dental health facilities or those involving provision of dental care.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)