Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Indians, South American: Individual members of South American ethnic groups with historic ancestral origins in Asia.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Paternity: Establishing the father relationship of a man and a child.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Genes, Recessive: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Jews: An ethnic group with historical ties to the land of ISRAEL and the religion of JUDAISM.Heterozygote Detection: Identification of genetic carriers for a given trait.Consanguinity: The magnitude of INBREEDING in humans.Electrophoresis, Starch Gel: Electrophoresis in which a starch gel (a mixture of amylose and amylopectin) is used as the diffusion medium.Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.Phosphoglucomutase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of alpha D-glucose 1-phosphate to alpha D-glucose 6-phosphate. EC 5.4.2.2.Genes, Dominant: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Probability: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)EsterasesEthnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Inbreeding: The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.Gaucher Disease: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of acid beta-glucosidase (GLUCOSYLCERAMIDASE) leading to intralysosomal accumulation of glycosylceramide mainly in cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. The characteristic Gaucher cells, glycosphingolipid-filled HISTIOCYTES, displace normal cells in BONE MARROW and visceral organs causing skeletal deterioration, hepatosplenomegaly, and organ dysfunction. There are several subtypes based on the presence and severity of neurological involvement.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Haptoglobins: Plasma glycoproteins that form a stable complex with hemoglobin to aid the recycling of heme iron. They are encoded in man by a gene on the short arm of chromosome 16.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Enzymes: Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Nuclear Family: A family composed of spouses and their children.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Lod Score: The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."JapanErythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Vibration: A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.