Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Orientation: Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.Depth Perception: Perception of three-dimensionality.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Space Perception: The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Pattern Recognition, Visual: Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.Behavior, Addictive: The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.Discrimination (Psychology): Differential response to different stimuli.Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Conditioning, Classical: Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.Association Learning: The principle that items experienced together enter into a connection, so that one tends to reinstate the other.Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Vision Disparity: The difference between two images on the retina when looking at a visual stimulus. This occurs since the two retinas do not have the same view of the stimulus because of the location of our eyes. Thus the left eye does not get exactly the same view as the right eye.Extinction, Psychological: The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.Form Perception: The sensory discrimination of a pattern shape or outline.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Motion Perception: The real or apparent movement of objects through the visual field.Psychophysics: The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Auditory Perception: The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.Speech Perception: The process whereby an utterance is decoded into a representation in terms of linguistic units (sequences of phonetic segments which combine to form lexical and grammatical morphemes).Smell: The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.Conditioning (Psychology): A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.Homing Behavior: Instinctual patterns of activity related to a specific area including ability of certain animals to return to a given place when displaced from it, often over great distances using navigational clues such as those used in migration (ANIMAL MIGRATION).Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Sound Spectrography: The graphic registration of the frequency and intensity of sounds, such as speech, infant crying, and animal vocalizations.Drug-Seeking Behavior: Activities performed to obtain licit or illicit substances.Vision, Binocular: The blending of separate images seen by each eye into one composite image.Self Administration: Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.Speech Acoustics: The acoustic aspects of speech in terms of frequency, intensity, and time.Distance Perception: The act of knowing or the recognition of a distance by recollective thought, or by means of a sensory process which is under the influence of set and of prior experience.Growth Cones: Bulbous enlargement of the growing tip of nerve axons and dendrites. They are crucial to neuronal development because of their pathfinding ability and their role in synaptogenesis.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.